Synergistic photothermal ablative effects of functionalizing carbon nanotubes with a POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer
© Tan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 12 June 2012
Accepted: 16 July 2012
Published: 31 July 2012
The application of nanotechnology in biology and medicine represents a significant paradigm shift in the approach to the treatment of cancer. Evidence suggests that when exposed to near-infrared radiation (NIR), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dissipate a substantial amount of heat energy. We have developed a novel nanocomposite polymer, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly (carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU). POSS-PCU displays excellent biocompatibility and has been used in making artificial organs as well as protective coatings for medical devices.
Functionalizing (or “coating”) CNTs with POSS-PCU confers biocompatibility and increase the amount of heat energy generated, by enhancing dispersion. Here we demonstrate that POSS-PCU-functionalized multi-walled CNTs (MWNTs) act synergistically together when exposed to NIR to thermally ablate cancer cells.
Given that POSS-PCU has already been used in human in first-in-man studies as trachea, lacrimal duct, bypass graft and other organs, our long-term goal is to take POSS-PCU coated CNTs to clinical studies to address the treatment of cancer by optimizing its therapeutic index and increasing its specificity via antibody conjugation.
KeywordsCarbon nanotubes POSS-PCU Thermal ablation Nanotechnology Nanocomposite polymer Colorectal cancer
Generally, CNTs can be classified into two broad categories: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNTs can be conceptualized as a rolled-up sheet of planar sp2 hybridized carbon atoms, while MWNTs are concentric layers of SWNTs . CNTs have exceptional tensile strength  (in the gigapascal (GPa) region), and a very high Young’s modulus  (in the tetrapascal (TPa) region), making them one of the strongest materials known. It has been previously reported that MWNTs display a higher thermal conductivity, compared to SWNTs, as their larger diameters allow a greater number of phonon modes, resulting in longer phonon mean free paths . Due to the lack of endogenous chromophores that absorb within the NIR spectrum, biological membranes are highly transparent to NIR within wavelengths of 700 nm to 1100 nm . Alluding to their electronic band structures, CNTs can attain a very high temperature (of up to 70°C) within minutes of exposure to NIR lasers . Exposure of CNTs to NIR laser would release a significant amount of vibrational energy, which consequently causes cell death via coagulative necrosis. This event is known as photothermal cancer ablation, with rupturing cell membranes and denaturation of cellular proteins.
We have previously developed a novel nanocomposite polymer called polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly (carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU, trade name UCL Nano™). POSS-PCU is biocompatible , resistant to degradation , and has potential applications for being scaffolds for artificial organs , and coatings for medical devices . Indeed, first-in-man clinical studies have already been conducted using POSS-PCU constructed three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic scaffolds of trachea , lacrimal duct and bypass graft, with favorable results.
A major concern for the use of CNTs in biological systems is its insolubility and inherent toxicity. With proper functionalization, for example with polyethylene glycol (PEG), CNTs appear to be well-tolerated in animal studies . Hence, we postulate the amphiphilic nature of POSS-PCU would increase dispersion of CNTs in biological systems , as well as conferring biocompatibility. Furthermore, we also set out to investigate if the increased dispersion of CNTs would affect temperature changes during NIR laser exposure, as well as the effects of photothermal ablation on a colorectal cancer cell line.
Results & discussion
Conferring solubility and biocompatibility via POSS-PCU functionalization
Raw CNTs are insoluble in water and biological systems. Upon non-covalent functionalization with POSS-PCU, solubility was conferred, rendering it ready for use in biological systems. POSS-PCU is highly compatible, and its use in humans as a bioartificial trachea, bypass graft and lacrimal duct underscores its potential usability as a coating agent for nanoparticles as well. Unfunctionalized CNTs are not appropriate for use in biological systems, and we postulate that biocompatibility can be conferred via functionalization with POSS-PCU.
Synergistic thermal effects of POSS-PCU and CNTs
As POSS-PCU has thermoplastic behavior, does not absorb in the near infrared spectrum. Thus, when exposed to NIR laser, the temperature of POSS-PCU remains constant at room temperature. Our results reveal that the presence of POSS-PCU does not simply maintain the temperature profile curve (as one might expect due to its absence of heating effect), but instead increases the temperature profile curve when functionalized with CNTs.
Enhanced cell kill using POSS-PCU-CNT complex
We have successfully demonstrated that POSS-PCU-functionalized CNTs have the ability to thermally ablate cancer cells when exposed to NIR laser. Furthermore, POSS-PCU-functionalized CNTs attain a higher maximum temperature as well as a higher cell death rate compared to unfunctionalized CNTs. This has significant implications in photothermal ablative techniques, as it shows that cell death would only occur when functionalized CNTs are exposed to NIR. It has to be noted that the depth of penetration of NIR is only effect up to a few centimeters; hence for non-superficial cancers, delivery of NIR can be achieved using optical fibers. Although the toxicology of CNTs due to its size is also a current point of contention, current scientific consensus dictates that functionalizing CNTs with biocompatible molecules can confer biocompatibility to CNTS. We have demonstrated a proof-of-concept that POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymers can render CNTs biocompatible as well as augmenting its intended clinical function of photothermal cancer ablation.
In this study, we present a model of synergism between CNTs and a novel nanocomposite polymer, POSS-PCU. This manifests itself in terms of temperature increase and the ability to thermally ablate cancer cells when exposed to NIR laser. Furthermore, POSS-PCU confers solubility and biocompatibility to CNTs, making it an ideal functionalizing agent to address cancer. Future work regarding cancer-specific antibody conjugation for targeted therapy and in vivo studies would not only be imperative, but integral for elucidating the biological applications for CNTs and nanocomposite polymers. Taken together, this work underscores the dual functionality and synergistic effects of POSS-PCU functionalization, which could have implications and ramifications in a wide-ranging area of nanomedicine.
Materials & methods
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and dunctionalization with POSS-PCU
Pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were obtained from Nanothinx S.A. (Rio-Patras, Greece). They had a mean diameter of 15 nm, and a mean length of 100 nm. The preparation of POSS-PCU has been described elsewhere. Briefly, 1 mg of MWNT was mixed with 1 mg of POSS-PCU (50% and 100%) in a glass scintillation vial and 5 ml of water was added. The resultant mixture was sonicated in a sonicator bath (Grant Instruments, Cambridge, UK) for 60 minutes at room temperature.
Characterization of POSS-PCU-CNT Complexes
Visual characterization was conducted using a JEM-2100 F transmission electron microscope (JEOL Ltd. UK). Optical absorbance of CNT, POSS-PCU, and POSS-PCU-CNT was obtained using a LAMBDA 1050 UV/Vis/NIR (PerkinElmer, UK). Scan parameters were as follows: start (4000), number of scans (100), resolution (4), units (%T), end (400), interval (4), shuttle (interleaved). The absorption spectrum was obtained via a second derivative and a 16-point reading.
Near infrared radiation (NIR) laser system and temperature tracking
A NIR laser system (Thorlabs Ltd, UK) with a 808 nm laser diode was used to irradiate CNTs. The laser diode controller was set to either 2300 mA (1 W) or 1250 mA (0.5 W). To prevent over-heating, the temperature controller was set to 10 kΩ. Temperature tracking and thermal images were obtained using a Thermacam™ SC500 thermal camera (FLIR Systems, UK). CNTs were exposed to NIR irradiation for 10 minutes, and temperature changes were recorded every minute.
Thermal ablation of cancer cells
A HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell line was used as a model for photothermal cancer ablation. Briefly, 3 million (3 × 106) cells were counted and seeded on a 96-well plate, with a theoretical cell count of 300,000 in each well. To each well, 100 μl of treatment reagent was added (CNT, POSS-PCU, or POSS-PCU-CNT). All treatments were done in triplicates. NIR laser was then applied for 10 minutes. Cells were then incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 24 hours, and counted thereafter. All reagents pertaining to cell work were purchased from Invitrogen. Cell count was done using a MACSQuant Analyzer flow cytometry (Miltenyi Biotec Ltd. Surrey, UK).
Curve fitting and statistical analyses
Curve fitting (least squares method) and statistical analyses were conducted at a 95% confidence interval using MATLAB® (MathWorks Inc, USA). Statistical significance testing was conducted using unpaired Student’s t-test. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
The authors would like to acknowledge funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) – Industrial CASE.
- Iijima S: Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature. 1991, 354 (6348): 56-58. 10.1038/354056a0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hyder MN, Lee SW, Cebeci FC, Schmidt DJ: Shao-Horn Y. Hammond PT: Layer-by-Layer Assembled Polyaniline Nanofiber/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Electrodes for High-Power and High-Energy Storage Applications. ACS nano; 2011Google Scholar
- Tan A, Yildirimer L, Rajadas J, De La Pena H, Pastorin G, Seifalian A: Quantum dots and carbon nanotubes in oncology: a review on emerging theranostic applications in nanomedicine. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2011, 6 (6): 1101-1114. 10.2217/nnm.11.64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Yap SQ, Yoong SL, Nayak TR, Chandra GW, Ang WH, Panczyk T, Ramaprabhu S, Vashist SK, Sheu F-S: Carbon nanotube bottles for incorporation, release and enhanced cytotoxic effect of cisplatin. Carbon. 2012, 50 (4): 1625-1634. 10.1016/j.carbon.2011.11.043.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou F, Xing D, Ou Z, Wu B, Resasco DE, Chen WR: Cancer photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Biomed Opt. 2009, 14 (2): 021009-10.1117/1.3078803.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kam NW, O'Connell M, Wisdom JA, Dai H: Carbon nanotubes as multifunctional biological transporters and near-infrared agents for selective cancer cell destruction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005, 102 (33): 11600-11605. 10.1073/pnas.0502680102.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Madani SY, Tan A, Dwek M, Seifalian AM: Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes and their binding to cancer cells. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012, 7: 905-914.Google Scholar
- Dai H: Carbon nanotubes: synthesis, integration, and properties. Accounts of chemical research. 2002, 35 (12): 1035-1044. 10.1021/ar0101640.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu MF, Lourie O, Dyer MJ, Moloni K, Kelly TF, Ruoff RS: Strength and breaking mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes under tensile load. Science. 2000, 287 (5453): 637-640. 10.1126/science.287.5453.637.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Treacy MMJ, Ebbesen TW, Gibson JM: Exceptionally high Young's modulus observed for individual carbon nanotubes. Nature. 1996, 381 (6584): 678-680. 10.1038/381678a0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aliev AE, Lima MH, Silverman EM, Baughman RH: Thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube sheets: radiation losses and quenching of phonon modes. Nanotechnology. 2010, 21 (3): 035709-10.1088/0957-4484/21/3/035709.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Welsher K, Liu Z, Sherlock SP, Robinson JT, Chen Z, Daranciang D, Dai H: A route to brightly fluorescent carbon nanotubes for near-infrared imaging in mice. Nat Nanotechnol. 2009, 4 (11): 773-780. 10.1038/nnano.2009.294.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu Z, Tabakman S, Welsher K, Dai H: Carbon Nanotubes in Biology and Medicine: In vitro and in vivo Detection, Imaging and Drug Delivery. Nano research. 2009, 2 (2): 85-120. 10.1007/s12274-009-9009-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahmed M, Ghanbari H, Cousins BG, Hamilton G, Seifalian AM: Small calibre polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocomposite cardiovascular grafts: influence of porosity on the structure, haemocompatibility and mechanical properties. Acta Biomater. 2011, 7 (11): 3857-3867. 10.1016/j.actbio.2011.06.051.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kannan RY, Salacinski HJ, Odlyha M, Butler PE, Seifalian AM: The degradative resistance of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocore integrated polyurethanes: an in vitro study. Biomaterials. 2006, 27 (9): 1971-1979. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.10.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chaloupka K, Motwani M, Seifalian AM: Development of a new lacrimal drainage conduit using POSS nanocomposite. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2011, 58 (5): 363-370. 10.1002/bab.53.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Solouk A, Cousins BG, Mirzadeh H, Solati-Hashtjin M, Najarian S, Seifalian AM: Surface modification of POSS-nanocomposite biomaterials using reactive oxygen plasma treatment for cardiovascular surgical implant applications. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2011, 58 (3): 147-161. 10.1002/bab.22.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jungebluth P, Alici E, Baiguera S, Le Blanc K, Blomberg P, Bozoky B, Crowley C, Einarsson O, Grinnemo KH, Gudbjartsson T: Tracheobronchial transplantation with a stem-cell-seeded bioartificial nanocomposite: a proof-of-concept study. Lancet. 2011, 378 (9808): 1997-2004. 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61715-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schipper ML, Nakayama-Ratchford N, Davis CR, Kam NW, Chu P, Liu Z, Sun X, Dai H, Gambhir SS: A pilot toxicology study of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a small sample of mice. Nat Nanotechnol. 2008, 3 (4): 216-221. 10.1038/nnano.2008.68.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cousins BG, Das AK, Sharma R, Li Y, McNamara JP, Hillier IH, Kinloch IA, Ulijn RV: Enzyme-activated surfactants for dispersion of carbon nanotubes. Small. 2009, 5 (5): 587-590. 10.1002/smll.200801184.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Z, Tabakman SM, Goodwin AP, Kattah MG, Daranciang D, Wang X, Zhang G, Li X, Liu Z, Utz PJ: Protein microarrays with carbon nanotubes as multicolor Raman labels. Nat Biotechnol. 2008, 26 (11): 1285-1292. 10.1038/nbt.1501.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen RJ, Zhang Y, Wang D, Dai H: Noncovalent sidewall functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for protein immobilization. J Am Chem Soc. 2001, 123 (16): 3838-3839. 10.1021/ja010172b.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shim M, Shi Kam NW, Chen RJ, Li Y, Dai H: Functionalization of carbon nanotubes for biocompatibility and biomolecular recognition. Nano Lett. 2002, 2: 285-288. 10.1021/nl015692j.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kannan RY, Salacinski HJ, Ghanavi JE, Narula A, Odlyha M, Peirovi H, Butler PE, Seifalian AM: Silsesquioxane nanocomposites as tissue implants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007, 119 (6): 1653-1662. 10.1097/01.prs.0000246404.53831.4c.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.