A nano-view of West Nile virus-induced cellular changes during infection
© Lee and Ng; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2004
Received: 05 April 2004
Accepted: 29 June 2004
Published: 29 June 2004
Microscopic imaging of viruses and their interactions with and effects on host cells are frequently held back by limitations of the microscope's resolution or the invasive nature of the sample preparation procedures. It is also difficult to have a technique that would allow simultaneous imaging of both surface and sub-surface on the same cell. This has hampered endeavours to elucidate virus-host interactions. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), which is commonly used in the physical sciences, is now becoming a good correlative form of microscopy used to complement existing optical, confocal and electron microscopy for biological applications
In this study, the West Nile (Sarafend) virus-infected Vero cell model was used. The atomic force microscope was found to be useful in producing high resolution images of virus-host events with minimal sample processing requirements. The AFM was able to image the budding of the West Nile (Sarafend) virus at the infected cell surface. Proliferation of the filopodia and thickening of clusters of actin filaments accompanied West Nile virus replication.
The study shows that the AFM is useful for virus-host interaction studies. The technique provides morphological information on both the virus and the host cell during the infection stages.
Viral infections represent a particularly difficult type of challenge to overcome. Though the field of anti-viral strategies continues to grow, success rates lag greatly behind antibacterial strategies. This is due in large part to the lack of understanding of virus interactions with their host cells. The small scale of viruses results in difficulties in the efficient imaging of virus-infected samples.
To date, the microscopy forms that are able to achieve the level of magnification and resolution for imaging viruses are the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both these techniques have a requirement for tedious levels of sample processing. The invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) by Binnig and colleagues  has allowed for high-resolution imaging of nanostructures in living samples [2–4]. A number of these studies involved the observation of purified samples of biomolecules including large viruses, for example, the tobacco mosaic virus, pox virus and human immunodeficiency virus [5–7]. The homogeneity in the sample appears to lend itself to better AFM imaging.
The AFM is able to produce images in several different formats, of which three were consistently analysed: height, phase and amplitude. The height data image is obtained via recording the changes in AFM scanner height as it shifts to keep the vibrational amplitude of the cantilever of the probe constant. This produces an image with highly accurate quantitative height measurements. The phase data image produces an image that provides information of the differing materials/texture in the sample by analyzing the different responses of the probe on such materials. The amplitude data image produces an emphasized view of the height data image by describing the change in the amplitude of the probe directly. While structures are not distorted in the amplitude data image, accurate quantitative measurements are more likely garnered from the height data image.
The AFM does not require much in sample processing: in fact, its main requirement is that the sample is well-adhered to a substrate such that it does not move around when the AFM probe engages it. Beyond that, additional sample preparation such as fixation or labelling is decided on a sample-specific basis. While a live sample would be an ideal specimen to study, biosafety concerns stipulated the use of mild fixation in our virus infected samples. Fixation was preformed on mock-infected samples for the sake of consistency. As a result, the observations in the study are based on the interpretation of static pictures.
The objectives of this study are to investigate the suitability of atomic force microscopy for virus-host interaction studies using the flavivirus model. In addition, to gauge if the images obtained can reveal more information than with the known conventional ultra-structural studies.
Results and Discussion
West Nile (Sarafend) virus-induced changes in infected cells at late stage infection
At the late stages of West Nile (Sarafend) virus infection in Vero cells, several interesting aspects warranted investigation. One unique aspect was the maturation of this virus at the plasma membrane. This observation was first reported by Ng and colleagues [8, 9]. Active budding was also present at the proliferated filopodia. In conjunction with the budding of the maturing virus particles, there was a progressive lengthening and thickening of the actin filaments at the cell peripheral. The postulation was that the vectorial force of the growing length of the actin filament provided the bending force to expel the virus particles .
The hard tapping AFM technique used provided a certain degree of "translucency" to the plasma membrane, which enabled the imaging of sub-surface structures in addition to producing surface morphological data. By adjusting the probe to engage the sample with greater force, the probe tip physically pushes against the soft sample surface to image sub-surface structures. It was through this ability that the AFM was able to observe the up-regulation of actin filaments in the late infection stages.
The AFM successfully imaged the West Nile virus-induced changes in infected Vero cells. Both the TappingMode™ and hard tapping mode were used in this study. As this is the first study using atomic force microscopy for flaviviruses, a more cautious approach was taken. Mildly-fixed infected cells were used to optimize the AFM technique for virus-host interaction studies. To gain further confidence with this technique, transmission electron micrographs were included for comparison. As these samples were fixed and dried prior to imaging, certain considerations had to be addressed.
The effects of this drying procedure may cause a certain degree of flattening to the nanostructures on the sample, and this was taken into account during interpretation of the results. Drying may also increase the surface roughness  of the sample. However, the effect of fixation on these samples brings the samples morphologically more similar to the TEM images that we used for comparison, and made such comparisons more meaningful. At such an early stage of research, confirmations and corroboration from other more established microscopy forms are essential to successfully interpret the results from the AFM.
Since the cells are soft textured samples, TappingMode™ was the preferred mode used. The alternative contact mode involves the constant contact between the probe and the sample, thus causing damage to the soft biological samples. Hard tapping was applied when there was a need to image sub-surface structures. These modes proved to be very compatible for virus and cell imaging.
In the case of West Nile (Sarafend) virus infections, the new information provided by the AFM gave further insight into virus-induced changes during the infection. Nanostructures such as the budding of individual progeny viruses (Fig.1) or of bags containing progeny virus were observed as enveloped sacs associated with the filopodia extending from the plasma membrane in the West Nile virus-infected Vero cells (Fig. 2). The AFM can image the virus-induced changes in the host cell as well as minute structures (50 nm) such as West Nile virus particles illustrates that the AFM is able to provide both the macro and nano data germane to virus-host interaction studies. The usefulness of hard tapping techniques was most notable in the observation of actin filament formation near the periphery of the infected cell membrane. The time course of West Nile virus infection through the Vero cell has been documented in previous studies [8–10] using other microscopy forms, and they corroborate the observations made in this study using the AFM.
The virus studied here is of great medical and economical impact on the world. Flaviviruses have long been a medical problem in many parts of the world , especially with the resurgence of West Nile virus infections in North America . With emerging and re-emerging viruses such as this, new and pertinent data of how these viruses replicate in their host cells is becoming increasingly and urgently needed. The nano-biotechnological field of AFM represents a new set of "eyes" in which virologists may use to meet these new challenges.
Vero cells derived from African green monkey kidney (a kind gift from Professor E. G. Westaway, Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Laboratory, Queensland, Australia) were used. Cell lines were maintained in M199 growth media supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum (FCS). Cells were cultured onto sterile ethanol-treated coverslips placed into 24-well cell culture plates and incubated overnight to achieve a level of 80% confluency. These cells were used for virus infection studies.
West Nile (Sarafend) virus, a kind gift from Professor E. G. Westaway, Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Laboratory, Queensland, Australia), was propagated in Vero cells throughout this study.
Flavivirus infection of cells
The Vero cells were infected with West Nile (Sarafend) virus at a multiplicity of infection (M.O.I.) = 1. The cells grown on the coverslips were washed once with PBS, before infection with 100 μl of viruses for 1 h. The coverslips were rocked gently every 15 min to ensure the uniform spreading of the virus solution over the cell monolayer on the coverslip. After 1 h of infection, 1.5 ml of the appropriate growth media supplemented with 2% FCS was added to the coverslips, and these were left to incubate in a 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C. The samples were fixed, and imaged at 12, 16, 24 and 36 h p.i.
As this is a pioneering study on the flavivirus, mildly fixed samples were used. The samples were washed thrice with PBS for the duration of 5 min each time, after which they were fixed with a 2% paraformaldehyde/0.2% glutaraldehyde solution at pH 7.4 for 30 min. The fixative solution was decanted and the samples washed twice with PBS. A final wash with deionised water was followed by gentle drying with a nitrogen gas gun.
The samples were then imaged in the AFM using the Force Modulation Etched Silicon Probe (FESP), (Veeco, USA) which has a length of 219 μm and a vibrational frequency of 69-88 kHz.
Cryo-Immunolabelling Electron Microscopy
At selected times p.i., Vero cells infected with WNV were washed twice with cold PBS and fixed with 0.2% glutaraldehyde/ 4 % paraformaldehyde for 30 min. The cells were scraped and spun down. The cell pellet was resuspended in 10% gelatin at room temperature and spin, and the gelatin with the pelleted cells was solidified at 4°C for 10 min. The hardened block was post-fixed with the above fixative again for 20 min. The gelatin block was then cut into 1-mm cubes and immersed into cryo-protection buffer of 2.3 M sucrose for 2 h. The block was frozen by plunging into liquid nitrogen before cryo-ultramicrotomy, using an ultracut microtome (UCT) with a cryo-attachment (EM FCS – Leica, Austria). Ultrathin sections of the infected cells were picked up onto Formvar-coated grids and immunolabelling was carried out at room temperature. The sections were washed for 10 min with PBS. This was followed by three washes (at 5 min each) with 0.05 M glycine in PBS (to block the aldehyde groups) before incubating for 30 min in PBS with 5% BSA (protein block). Sections were then washed in 0.1% BSA in PBS (3 × 5 min) and exposed to the primary antibody (against the WNV envelope protein) at 1:100 dilution (0.1% BSA in PBS) for 1 h. Six washes (at 5 min each) in 1% BSA in PBS was done before exposing the cells to the Protein A colloidal gold (10 nm at 1:20 dilution to label envelope protein) for 1 h. Samples were then postfixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in PBS for 5 min and washed (2 × 5 min) in PBS and distilled water (4 × 5 min). Finally, sections were embedded in 2% uranyl acetate and 1.8% methyl cellulose mixture (1:9 parts) for 5 min and dried before viewing under the CM120 BioTwin transmission electron microscope (Philips, The Netherlands).
JL carried out the sample preparation and AFM studies. NML conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
List of Abbreviations Used
Atomic Force Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope
Scanning Electron Microscope
Phosphate Buffered Saline
Bovine Serum Albumin
- h p.i.:
hours post infection
This work was supported by the Academic Research Fund (Grant no. R-182-000-055-112), from the National University of Singapore
- Binnig G, Rohrer H: The Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Sci Amer. 1985, 253: 50-56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Allen MJ, Balooch M, Subbiah S, Tench RJ, Siekhaus W, Balhorn R: Scanning tunneling microscope images of adenine and thymine at atomic resolution. Scanning Microsc. 1991, 5: 625-630.Google Scholar
- Almqvist N, Backman L, Fredriksson S: Imaging human erythrocyte spectrin with atomic force microscopy. Micron. 1994, 25: 227-232. 10.1016/0968-4328(94)90027-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bai C, Zhang P, Fang Y, Cao E, Wang C: Studies of biomaterials using atomic force microscopy. J Korean Physical Society (Proc Suppl). 1997, 31: S47-S50.Google Scholar
- Drygin YF, Bordunova OA, Gallyamov MO, Yaminsky IV: Atomic force microscopy examination of tobacco mosaic virus and virion RNA. FEBS Lett. 1998, 425: 217-221. 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00232-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ohnesorge FM, Horber JK, Haberle W, Czerny CP, Smith DP, Binnig G: AFM review study on pox viruses and living cells. Biophys J. 1997, 73: 2183-2194.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuznetsov YG, Victoria JG, Robinson WE, McPherson A: Atomic force microscopy investigation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV-infected lymphocytes. J Virol. 2003, 77: 11896-11909. 10.1128/JVI.77.22.11896-11909.2003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ng ML, Howe J, Sreenivasan V, Mulders JJ: Flavivirus West Nile (Sarafend) egress at the plasma membrane. Arch Virol. 1994, 137: 303-313.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ng ML, Tan SH, Chu JJ: Transport and budding at two distinct sites of visible nucleocapsids of West Nile (Sarafend) virus. J Med Virol. 2001, 65: 758-764. 10.1002/jmv.2101.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chu JJ, Choo BG, Lee JWM, Ng ML: Actin filaments participate in West Nile (Sarafend) virus maturation process. J Med Virol. 2003, 71: 463-472. 10.1002/jmv.10495.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu M, Ivanisevic A: Encapsulated cells: an atomic force microscopy study. Biomaterials. 2004, 25: 3655-3662. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.10.061.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Westaway EG, Brinton MA, Gaidamovich SY, Horzinek MC, Igarashi A, Kaariainen L, Lvov DK, Porterfield JS, Russell PK, Trent DW: Flaviviridae. Intervirology. 1985, 24: 183-192.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Update: West Nile-like viral encephalitis, New York,1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999, 48: 890-892.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.