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Table 1 Young' s modulus for vegetative cells and spores of bacteria

From: Development of method for evaluating cell hardness and correlation between bacterial spore hardness and durability

Bacterial strains Vegetative cells Spores
S. aureus 0.211 ± 0.023
E. coli 0.165 ± 0.033
P. aeruginosa 0.199 ± 0.023
G. stearothermophilus 0.222 ± 0.041 0.811 ± 0.048
B. coagulans 0.204 ± 0.028 0.682 ± 0.039
B. subtilis 0.215 ± 0.018 0.414 ± 0.021
B. licheniformis 0.233 ± 0.034 0.329 ± 0.012
B. megaterium 0.196 ± 0.022 0.240 ± 0.059
  1. Number of measurement samples = 10.
  2. Young’s modulus, E (N/m) = Physical stress of cell, σ (nN)/Applied strain of cell, ϵ (nm), where ϵ = 50 nm.