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Table 3 Comparison of the dynamic range and LOD for different CEA assay formats a)

From: Immunoliposome-PCR: a generic ultrasensitive quantitative antigen detection system

Assay format

Range (ng/mL)




5 – 320


[41, 60]

Chemiluminescence c)

1 – 25



Quartz-crystal microbalance

2.5 – 55



Microarray fluorescence sensor d)

0.16 – 9.4



Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay e)

1 – 560



Electrochemiluminescence f)

0.21 –2,000



ICP Mass spectrometry g)

15 – 250



Amperometric immunosensor h)

0.2 – 160



Microchip electrophoresis i)

0.06 – 8



ICP mass spectrometry (immunogold) j)

0.07 – 1,000



Colorimetric ELISA

0.05 – 50


[41, 70, 71]

Single-particle counting k)

0.017 – 170




0.01 – 100



Electrochemical (quantum dots) l)

0.01 – 80



Electrochemical (gold nanoparticle) m)

0.01 – 200



Electrochemical (carbon film) n)

0.005 – 50


[75, 76]

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering o)

0.001 – 0.1



Nanowire sensor array p)

0.001 – 1




0.000013 – 13


this work

  1. a) Only assays performed using human or animal serum and reporting both a dynamic range and LOD were included.
  2. b) For the listed assays, the LOD is generally defined as the lowest CEA concentration on the dose–response curve ≤ to the blank minus 3-times the standard deviation of the blank (see the individual references for details).
  3. c) Flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay using a CEA-immobilized immunoaffinity column to capture free HRP-anti-CEA antibodies remaining after incubation with CEA-containing serum.
  4. d) Sandwich immunoassay using capture antibodies immobilized on microarrays based upon the self-assembly of DNA–protein conjugates. CEA is quantified using the fluorescence signal generated from fluorophores conjugated to the (secondary) antibody.
  5. e) Sandwich immunoassay where time-resolved fluorescence emission from a europium-labeled secondary antibody is used to quantify CEA immobilized by a capture antibody.
  6. f) Immunoassay where a electrochemiluminescence signal is generated when CEA labeled with ruthenium (II) binds to capture antibodies immobilized on the surface of an electrode in a competitive assay with unlabeled CEA in serum.
  7. g) Sandwich immunoassay where inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) is used to detect CEA from the spectral signal generated by europium-conjugated secondary antibodies bound to CEA immobilized by capture antibodies.
  8. h) Amperometric detection of CEA binding using an immunosensor based on the conjugation of CEA capture antibodies to Au-TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite films.
  9. i) Immunoassay using microchip electrophoresis-based detection of free and CEA-bound antibodies labeled with fluorescent tags.
  10. j) Immunoassay in which ICPMS is used to detect catalytic silver deposition initiated by CEA binding to capture antibodies immobilized on gold tags.
  11. k) Single-particle counting of laser-induced photon bursting generated when gold nanoparticles containing CEA bound to conjugated capture antibodies pass through a 1 fL flow cell.
  12. l) Sandwich immunoassay where CEA is detected from the voltammetric stripping pattern that results when metal ions are released from reverse-micelles conjugated to the secondary antibody.
  13. m) Sandwich immunoassay where CEA is detected from the electrochemical signal generated by horseradish peroxidase upon its release from hollow nanogold microspheres conjugated to the secondary antibody.
  14. n) Immunoassay in which an electrochemical signal is detected when CEA binds to capture antibodies conjugated to gold-coated magnetic core-shell nanoparticles immobilized on a carbon-paste electrode.
  15. o) Immunoassay in which surface-enhanced Raman scattering intensity is used to detect CEA bound to capture antibodies conjugated to hollow gold nanosphere magnetic particles.
  16. p) Immunoassay where a conductive signal is generated when CEA binds to capture antibodies immobilized on silicon nanowires fabricated into field-effect transistor sensors.