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Table 1 Gd-GNPs studied, percentage of Gd (in g of Gd per 100 g of nanoparticle), relaxivity values (r 1 , r 2 and r 2 /r 1 ) and relative contrast enhancement (RCE) values

From: A new ex vivo method to evaluate the performance of candidate MRI contrast agents: a proof-of-concept study

Contrast agent Gd-GNP (Glyco-Au-D03A:Gd)a % Gd (g of Gd per 100 g of nano particle) 1.4 T r1relaxivity (s−1 mM−1) (in vitro) (n = 3) 7.0 T r1relaxivity (s1 mM−1) (in vitro) (n = 3) 7.0 T r2relaxivity (s−1 mM−1) (in vitro) (n = 3) 7.0 T r2/r1 % RCE postmorten (ex vivo) (n = 3) % RCE (in vivo**) (n = 3)
GlcC5-DO3AC11 (GNP (E_1)) 4.7 ± 0.1 7.4 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.40 20.2 ± 0.11 7.48 182.8 ± 10.7* NM
GlcC2-DO3AC11 (GNP (F)) 3.4 ± 0.2 7.1 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 0.04 14.5 ± 2.37 5.00 185.4 ± 17.2 NM
GlcC9-DO3AC11 (GNP (G)) 3.2 ± 0.2 7.5 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 0.15 12.7 ± 0.24 7.94 168.7 ± 7.74* NM
GlcC7-DO3AC11 (GNP (H)) 4.1 ± 0.2 7.1 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.36 11.2 ± 0.21 7.00 143.6 ± 8.0* NM
GlcC3-DO3AC11 (GNP (I)) 3.3 ± 0.2 6.3 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.07 19.9 ± 1.43 11.06 141.5 ± 2.5 NM
GlcC5-DO3AC11 (GNP (E_2))b 7.0 ± 0.2 11.5 ± 0.1 8.2 ± 0.37 14.5 ± 0.66 1.77 201.9 ± 9.3* 124.9 ± 8.3*
GlcC5-DO3AC11 (GNP (J)) 5.0 ± 0.2 8.1 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.24 24.4 ± 0.34 5.30 169.1 ± 14.1* NM
Gadoterate meglumine NA 3.10c/3.5d 2.1 ± 0.42 3.58 ± 0.02 1.70 236.7 ± 8.3 113. 1 ± 2.5
  1. Detailed legend:
  2. a)Glc = glucose, Gal = galactose. C (number) after the saccharide and the DO3A indicates the number of carbon atoms of the linkers.
  3. b) GNP (E_2) was obtained from GNP (E_1) after further incubation with a solution of DO3AC11-Gd complex (4 equiv.) during 44 hours as described in [31].
  4. c) Values taken from [7].
  5. d) Values taken from [58].
  6. *p < 0.05 versus gadoterate meglumine.
  7. **Mean of RCE values (n = 9 independent measures for 3 animals) measured at the maximum enhancement time, for each of the CA studied in vivo.
  8. NM, not measured. NA, not applicable.
  9. For each value mean and standard deviation are shown.