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Table 1 Effects of carbon nanomaterials on plants

From: Carbon and fullerene nanomaterials in plant system

Nanoparticle Size (nm) Plant Concentration Effect References
C60 Fullerenes 1450-1900 Corn 500 mg kg−1 Reduced biomass Torre-Roche et al. [36]
   Soybean   Reduced biomass Torre-Roche et al. [36]
Fullerol [C60 (OH)20] 1.5 ± 0.2-5.00 ± 0.7 Bitter melon 0.943, 4.72, 9.43, 10.88 and 47.20 nM Increased biomass yield, water content, fruit length, fruit number, and fruit fresh weight, increased two anticancerous phytomedicines, cucurbitacin-B and lycopene, and two antidiabetic phytomedicines, charantin and insulin Kolle et al. [37]
Functionalized carbon nanotube 8 Lettuce 104, 315, 1750 mg L−1 Reduced root length at longer exposure Cañas et al. [34]
Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube 8 Cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion, tomato 9, 56, 315, 1750 mg L−1 No effect Cañas et al. [34]
Multiwalled carbon nanotube   Zucchini 1000 mg L−1 Reduced biomass Stampoulis et al. [38]
   Lettuce 2000 mg L−1 Reduced root length Lin and Xing [39]
  Diameter range: 10-30 Rice 20, 40, 80 mg L−1 Chromatin condensed inside the cytoplasm and caused cell death, plasma membrane detachment from cell wall and cell shrinkage Tan and Lin [40]
   Tomato 10-40 mg L−1 Significant increase in germination rate, fresh biomass, and length of stem significantly enhanced moisture content inside tomato seeds Khodakovskaya et al. [41]
   Corn, cucumber, radish, rapeseed, ryegrass, lettuce 2000 mg L−1 No effect on germination Lin and Xing [39]
   Ryegrass 2000 mg L−1 Increased root length Lin and Xing [39]
   Zucchini   No effect on the germination Stampoulis et al. [38]
  Internal dimension: 110-170 Wheat 100 mg L−1 No significant effect on root or shoot growth Wild and Jones [42]
  10-25 Tomato 50-200 μg L−1 Significant increase in plant height, flower and fruit formation Khodakovskaya et al. [43]
Single-walled carbon nanotube 1.19 (major), 18, 722 Rice 400 mg L−1 Delayed flowering, decreased yield Lin et al. [44]
  8 Tomato 104, 315, 1750 mg L−1 Most sensitive in root reduction Cañas et al. [34]
  8 Cucumber onion, 104, 315, 1750 mg L−1 Increased root length Cañas et al. [34]
  8 Cabbage, carrot, lettuce 104, 315, 1750 mg L−1 No effect Cañas et al. [34]