Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of Au-AbVF conjugates. For TGA, 150 ml gold nanoparticles were incubated with 600 μg of AbVF. After 1 h, the nanoconjugates were centrifuged at 25000 rpm for 1 h, freeze-dried overnight and analyzed using TGA; 2a) describes weight loss over temperature and 2b) derivative weight loss over temperature for the nanoconjugates. TGA analysis was done on purified and lyophilized nanoconjugates, 2c) X-ray photoelectron spectra of Au-AbVF conjugates. Core level BE of Au and 2d) core level BE of N.