Effect of time on the induction of apoptosis of CLL-B cells by AbVF, Au and Au-AbVF. Cells were treated with 5 ug/ml of AbVF/Au/Au-AbVF for 72 h. Apoptosis measurement was then done using annexin/PI and apoptosis was calculated as described above; 4a) effect of AbVF alone; 4b) effect of Au alone; 4c) effect of Au-AbVF alone and 3d) comparison of the efficacy of AbVF, gold and gold-AbVF, 4d) comparison of effect of AbVF, Au and Au-AbVF on the apoptosis of CLL-B cells. To compare the activity of AbVF either conjugated or free the amount of AbVF used as control is exactly the same amount of AbVF present in the nanoconjugate. Similarly, to compare the activity of Au and Au-AbVF the amount of Au used as control is exactly the same amount of Au present in the nanoconjugate. The quantitations of Au in the nanoparticles solution and in the purified nanoconjugates were determined using inductively couple plasma analysis (ICP).