Time needed for PVP-coated AgNPs to confer protection from the transmission of HIV-1 through the cervical. Cervical explants were pretreated for 1, 15 and 30 minutes with 0.1 or 0.15 mg/mL PVP-coated AgNPs. After thoroughly washing extracellular PVP-coated AgNPs from the cervical tissue, cell-associated virus (H9+) (5 × 105 cells) was added to the upper chamber of the Transwell. Indicator cells (MT-2) were cultured in the lower chamber to evaluate the inhibition of HIVIIIB infection. Graphs show values of the means ± standard deviations from three separate experiments. Graphs were created using the SigmaPlot 10.0 software.