Hydrogen peroxide (H
) levels in TiO
NP-exposed HepG2 cells with and without TLR3 or TLR4 transfection. The transfected cells were exposed to 10 μg/ml TiO2 NPs for 48 h. Each plot was produced from at least 3 replicate measurements. All values are presented as mean ± S.D. (n ≥3), (*P <0.05).