Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Physicochemical parameters for different types of insulin nanocarrier

From: Nanoparticle based insulin delivery system: the next generation efficient therapy for Type 1 diabetes

Nano-carrier Method of synthesis Components Size (nm) Zeta potential (mV) Route of administration of nanocarrier EE (%) DL (%) Dose (I.U./kg) (min/max) PA (%) Ref
Chitosan-insulin Graft polymerization Carboxylated chitosan + methyl methacrylate 251 to 319 –22 to –26.4 Oral 85 11.9 15 (min) 100 (max) 9.7 [77]
Polyelectrolyte complexes + oily dispersion system Chitosan + Oleic acid + Plurol oleique + Labrasol 108 29.97 Oral 30.38 to 78.81 50 7 [76]
Iionotropic pre-gelation + polyelectrolyte complexation Chitosan + Alginate 748 −5.6 Oral 72.8 9.9 25 (min) 100 (max) 7.1 to 3.4 [79]
Polyelectrolyte complexation Chitosan + Dextran sulfate 527 −20.6 Oral 69.3 2.3 50 (min) 100 (max) 5.6 to 3.4 [78]
Ionotropic gelation Chitosan + TPP + Poloxamer 188 250 to 400 27.31 to 40.71 Oral 59.6 to 88.6 7.0 to 26.3 7 (min) 21 (max) 14 to 15.3 [60]
Ionotropic gelation Chitosan + TPP 269 to 688 21.8 to 49.8 Oral 38.5 to 78.5 60.8 50 (min) 100 (max) [64]
Ionotropic gelation Chitosan + TPP 300 to 400 54 to 25 Pulmonary 87.4 to 96.7 19 to 55 5 [68]
Polyelectrolyte complexation Chitosan 200 to 500 8.8 to 22 81.4 to 94.8 90 [67]
Ionotropic gelation Chitosan + Poly(ç-glutamic acid) 110 to 150 −23.7 to 33.4 Oral 56.8 14.9 15 (min) 30 (max) [70]
Ionotropic complexation + coacervation Chitosan + Dextran sulfate + Alginate 423 to 850 Oral 3 to 94 5 to 13 [71]
Coacervation method Chitosan + Eudragit L100-55  135 to 199 −20.7 to −27.9 mV Oral 3.38 30.56 [72]
W/O/W multiple emulsion + polyelectrolyte cross-linking Chitosan + Alginate + Calcium chloride + Labrafac CC + Phospholipid + Span 80 + Cremorphor EL 488 −62.25 Oral 47.3 25 (min) 50 (max) 8.19 to 7.84 [74]
Polyelectrolyte complexation Chitosan + γ-PGA 185.1 to 198.4 29.9 to 27.8 Oral 40.1 to 55.1 5.2 to 14.1 30 13.0 [65]
PLGA-Insulin Reverse micelle–solvent evaporation method PLGA + Phospholipid + PVA 102 to 428 −12 to −22 Oral 51.5 to 90.4 4 20 7.7 [82]
Emulsion solvent diffusion method  PLGA + Hp55  169 Oral 65.41 3.17 20 6.27 [47]
W/O/W solvent evaporation technique PLGA + Chitosan + Pluronic 188 134.4 43.1 Oral 52.76 1.29 15 10.5 [87]
W/O/W solvent evaporation technique PLGA + Pluronic 188 121.3 −1.72 Oral 46.87 1.14 15 7.6 [87]
Hydrophobic ion pairing + emulsion solvent diffusion method PLGA + Sodium oleate + PVA 161 −33.4 Oral 91.2 20 11.5 [88]
W/O/W double emulsion method Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) + poly(ethylene glycol) 120 to 355 95 [89]
W/O/W double emulsion method β-cyclodextrin-PLGA 120 to 355 95 [89]
Double-emulsion solvent evaporation method PLGA + PEG + Folate 260 Oral 87 6.5 50 [90]
Dextran-insulin Emulsion method Dextrans + Epichlorohydrin + vitamin B(12) 160 to 250 Oral 45 to 70 2 to 4 20 11.4 to 26.5 [102]
Ionotrophic gelation + polyelectrolyte complexation Dextran + Alginate + Poloxamer + Chitosan + BSA 396 −38.2 Oral 50 13 [103]
Nanoemulsion dispersion + triggered instantaneous particle gelation Dextran + Alginate + Chitosan + PEG + BSA >1842 (90 %) >812 (50 %) −7 Oral 85 25 (min) 100 (max) 42 to 10 [104]
Polyalkylcyanoacrylate-insulin Microemulsion Isopropyl myristate + Labrasol + Plurol Oleique + Ethyl (2) cyanoacrylate 200 to 400 −22 to −11.4 Oral 16 to 32.6 1.82 to 0.62 100 [109]
Microemulsion Isopropyl myristate + Labrasol + Plurol Oleique + butyl (2) cyanoacrylate 200 to 400 −21.5 to −6.5 Oral 11.5 to 52.3 1.31 to 0.99 100 [109]
Polybutylcyanoacrylate + Tween 20 78 Oral 50 15.5 [110]
Polybutylcyanoacrylate + Tween 20 + Soyabean oil + vitamin E 67 Oral 50 22.4 [110]
Solid lipid-insulin W/O/W double emulsion technique Cetyl palmitate 361 −3.4 Oral 43 50 5 [115]
Lecithin + stearic acid + ploxamer + wheat germ agglutinin-N-glutamyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine 75.3 −13.11 Oral 17.89 to 23.72 50 6.08 [117]
Reverse micelle-double emulsion  Sodium cholate (SC) + soybean phosphatidylcholine + stearic acid + palmitic acid  114.7 −51.36 97.78 18.92 [118]
W/O/W emulsion technique 2 µ Pulmonary 56.32 to 66.02 8 35.62 [124]
Double emulsion method Stearic acid/octadecyl alcohol/cetyl palmitate/glyceryl monostearate/glyceryl palmitostearate/glyceryl tripalmitate/glyceryl behenate 213 to 444.8 −9 Oral 50 2.92 to 4.53 [123]
Solvent emulsification-evaporation Witepsol 85E 243 −25 Oral 43.6 2.1 25 8.26 [122]
Solvent emulsification-evaporation Witepsol 85E + chitosan 470 34 Oral 52.2 1.4 25 17.7 [122]
Targeted insulin nanoparticle Ionotropic gelation method N-trimethyl chitosan chloride + CSKSSDYQC peptide +  342 3 Oral 55.4 50 5.66 [26]
Nanoprecipitation PLA-PEG + human polyclonal IgG Fc 63 −5.6 Oral 0.5 1.1 13.7 [128]
  1. EE encapsulation efficiency, DL drug loading, PA pharmacological availability, Ref references