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Fig. 3 | Journal of Nanobiotechnology

Fig. 3

From: Chitosan functionalisation of gold nanoparticles encourages particle uptake and induces cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory conditions in phagocytic cells, as well as enhancing particle interactions with serum components

Fig. 3

AuNPs induced cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells. Viability (mitochondrial activity) (ac) and cytotoxicity (LDH release) (df) in PMA-stimulated cells, after treatment with Au_SC (a, d), Au_CHIT-L (b, e), and Au_CHIT-H (c, f), for 4, 24 and 48 h; 1 ng/ml LPS was used for co-stimulation, Triton X-100 was used as positive control. Results are expressed as, for viability,  % viability compared to 100 % control cells, and as the ratio change compared to controls for LDH release, and each data point represents the mean ± SEM of three independent biological replicates; statistical significance (determined by ANOVA with Tukey posthoc) is shown by +p < 0.05 for 4 h exposures, ^p < 0.05 for 24 h, and *p < 0.05 for 48 h, compared to relevant controls

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