Skip to main content

Table 1 Prospective amount (per annum) of Gold nanoparticles in selected medical applications (high release scenario)

From: Probabilistic modelling of prospective environmental concentrations of gold nanoparticles from medical applications as a basis for risk assessment

Application Consumption Waste compartment
UK US
Lab based lateral flow assay to detect the presence of Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in blood 0.34 6 Hazardous Medical/Clinical/Infectious Waste (HMCIW)
In vitro lab based diagnostic test kit for detection and genotyping warfarin metabolism 0.36 3 HMCIW
In vitro lab based diagnostic test kit for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism to detect risk from venous thrombosis 1 3 HMCIW
OTC pregnancy and ovulation test kits to detect hormones in urine 3–100 20–460 Municipal solid waste
Lab based in vitro rapid test kits for qualitative detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human serum, plasma and blood 2–80 20–830 HMCIW
Home based in vitro HIV test kits 20 90 Municipal solid waste
Lab based in vitro tests for detection of CD4 cells and viral loads for HIV patients 60 540 HMCIW
Lab based diagnostic test kits for infectious diseases 70 350 HMCIW
Removal of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal passage of patients to reduce risks of nosocomial infections 30–53,300 110–164,640 HMCIW
Treatment of periodontitis 270–106,560 940–365,160 Waste water
Sensors for diagnosing diseases from breath samples 0.01–1590 0.03–4620 HMCIW
Treatment for solid tumors (colorectal, pancreas, breast) 70 -(480) -1100 310-(2020)–4600 Waste water
Last line treatment for patients with solid tumors (colorectal, pancreatic and breast) 420 1500 Waste water
Treatment for patients diagnosed with head and neck and lung cancer 140,290–233,820 744,750–1,241,260 Waste water
Last line treatment for patients with head and neck and lung cancer 104,710–174,520 468,250–780,410 Waste water
Transbuccal insulin delivery platforms 128,250 841,620 Waste water
  1. The Table presents total gold nanoparticles consumption per annum for the UK and US using a worst case scenario. Data rounded off to 2 significant digits for values below 1 or data rounded off to the nearest integer or ten. Unit: gram. Refer to Additional file 1: Section S2 Estimation of annual Au-NP consumption for details related to assumptions and references