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Table 1 The main features of the most important reported methods for bacteria detection

From: Development of nanoparticle-based optical sensors for pathogenic bacterial detection

No. Reference Type of nanoparticle Size (nm) Bacteria detected Method Advantages Limit of detection (CFU/mL)
1. Joo 2012, [56] Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles functionalized with monoclonal antibodies toward Salmonella 120 Salmonella Immuno-magnetic separation Rapid, and cost-effective 100
2. Wang 2016, [54] Polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified Au-coated magnetic microspheres (Fe3O4@Au@PEI) and concentrated Au@Ag nanoparticles (NPs), 300 Escherichia coli
Staphylococcus aureus
SERS detection method Simple operating procedure, total assay time 10 min. 100
3. Qi 2016, [57] Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles 40–50 Desulforibrio caledoiensis Fluorescence microscopy Short detection time 25.8
4. Gao 2006, [58] FePt@Van magnetic nanoparticles, <10 Escherichia coli
Coagulase-negative
Staphylococcus (CNS)
Fluorescence microscopy Bacteria detection under 2 h 4
5. Raj 2015, [59] Cysteine gold nanoparticles (CAuNPs) 20 ± 2 Escherichia coli Colorimetric method Fast, visual method 100
6. Li 2013, [14] Streptavidin coated magnetic nanoparticles 36 Escherichia coli Salmonella
Vibrio cholera Campylobacter jejuni
Multiplex PCR Simultaneous detection of four pathogens 100
7. Cao 2011, [60] Bimetallic Au@Ag core–shell structures 27.7 ± 6.8 Campylobacter jejuni Immuno-magnetic separation-polymerase chain reaction
(IMS-PCR) method
Cost-effective, only basic equipment needed 100
8. Sepunaru 2015, [61] Silver NPs (AgNPs) 90.4 ± 3.6 Escherichia coli Anodic particle coulometry technique Single bacteria detection Single detection
9. Wang 2016, [62] Au-coated magnetic nanoparticles (AuMNPs) conjugated with Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) antibody 190 Staphylococcus aureus SERS detection method Low limit of detection 10
10. Cao 2014, [63] Molecular beacon–Aunanoparticle 15 Escherichia coli Real-time PCR 103 times more sensitive than traditional beacon probes 100
11. Zhang 2012, [64] Multifunctional magnetic–plasmonic Fe3O4–Au core–shell nanoparticles (Au-MNPs) 248.6 ± 35.8 E. coli
P. aeruginosa
A. calcoaceticus
SERS detection method One-step concentration and detection 50
12. Wang [65] CdSe/ZnS@SiO2–NH2 nanoparticles 70 Salmonella typhimurium,
Escherichia coli
Staphylococcus aureus
Fluorescence microscopy High sensitivity 330
13. Zhou 2014, [36] Silver nanoparticles 30 Escherichia coli
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Dynamic SERS Total assay time of 10 min. 250
14. Wu 2014, [66] Multicolor upconversion nanoparticles coupled with magnetic nanoparticles 20−30 Staphylococcus aureus
Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Salmonella typhimurium
Multiplexed Luminescence Bioassay Method High specificity, simultaneous detection 10-15
  1. Magnet of luorescent nanoparticles. ACS Nano, 2011. 5(11): p. 8834-8841 [79]. Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society