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Table 5 Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles based on ZnO

From: Nanoparticles based on essential metals and their phytotoxicity

Plant Type of nanoparticle, particle size (nm) Particle concentration Comment Observed effect References
Glycine max ZnO NPs <50 nm 500 ppm Effect of ZnO NPs on soybean seedlings was studied Decrease in root growth (length and weight), loss of root cell viability, accumulation of superoxide and decrease in leaf weight, down regulation of oxidative cascade related genes [89]
Pisum sativum Bare ZnO NPs 10 nm, Al2O3/ZnONPs 15 nm, KH550/ZnO NPs 20 nm 250, 1000 mg L−1 of soil Pea plants were grown for 65 days in soil amended with three types of ZnO NPs Al2O3/ZnO NPs at 250 mg kg−1 significantly increased chlorophyll-a and carotenoid concentrations. Al2O3/ZnO NPs at 1000 mg kg−1 significantly increased sucrose concentration of green peas [90]
Zea mays, Oryza sativa ZnO NPs <50 nm 500, 1000, 2000 mg L−1 Seed germination was investigated ZnO NPs inhibited root elongation at 2000 mg L−1 (50.45% for maize and 66.75% for rice) of two crop plants [91]
Brassica pekinensis Spheric ZnO NPs 30 nm, spheric ZnO NPs 50 nm, columnar ZnO NPs 90 nm, hexagon rod-like ZnO NPs 150 nm 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mg L−1 There were no significant differences in observed effects between different NPs ZnO NPs inhibited the root and shoot elongation of Chinese cabbage seedlings. The highest inhibition of root elongation at 80 mg L−1 was observed [92]
Pisum sativum ZnO NPs <50 nm 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg L−1 No impact on germination ZnO NPs (500–1000 mg L−1) significantly inhibited root elongation [93]
Vigna unguiculata ZnO NPs <100 nm 25 mg L−1 More pronounced effects were observed with ZnCl2 than with ZnO NPs Significant decrease in biomass production of roots and leaves observed in solution culture, but not observed in soil culture [94]
Arabidopsis thaliana ZnO NPs <100 nm 100 mg L−1 Effect of ZnO NPs on gene expression in plant roots were studied Induction of stress responsive genes, down regulation of genes involved in cell organization and biogenesis [94]
(Glycine max) ZnO NPs 10 nm 50, 100, and 500 mg kg−1 of soil ZnO NPs were added to the soil Zn bioaccumulated in all tissues and especially in the leaves [96]
(Fagopyrum esculentum) ZnO NPs <50 nm 10, 100, and 1000 mg kg−1 of soil ZnO NPs were added to the soil and growth of plant seedlings were observed Inhibition of shoot growth [21]
Triticum aestivum ZnO NPs <100 nm 500 mg kg−1 sand ZnO NPs were added to the sand Reduced root growth, increased lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione in roots. Bioaccumulation of Zn and decreased chlorophyll content in the shoots [67]
Cucumis sativus ZnO NPs 50 nm 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 mg L−1 Hydroponic experiments Decrease in seedling biomass. ZnO NPs adhered to the root cell wall, and some of them were observed in the root cells [97]
Allium sativum ZnO NPs 3–5 nm 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg L−1 Hydroponic experiments Concentration-dependent inhibition of root length, observed mitotic aberrations [98]
Zea mays ZnO NPs 370–410 nm 20 mg L−1 ZnO NPs were added to the sandy loam soil or to the water ZnO NPs aggregates penetrated the root epidermis and cortex. Some of the NPs aggregates were also present in xylem vessels [112]