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Table 6 Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles based on Cu/CuO

From: Nanoparticles based on essential metals and their phytotoxicity

Plant Type of nanoparticle, particle size (nm) Particle concentration Comment Observed effect References
Cucumis sativus CuNPs 40 nm 10, 20 mg L−1 Analysis of plants and root exudates Decrease in root length, reduction of root biomass, bioaccumulation mainly in roots, a little in stems [104]
Lactuca sativa CuO NPs 5–15 nm 0.02, 0.04, 0.4, 4, 8 mg L−1 5-day seed germination test Reduction of seed germination and root elongation [58]
Lactuca sativa Core–shell NPs Cu/CuO 13/9 nm 10, 20 mg L−1 15-days treatment of hydroponically grown lettuce Reduction of water content, root length, and dry biomass of the plant, alteration of the nutritional quality of lettuce [71]
Raphanus sativus, Lolium perenne, Lolium rigidum CuO NPs 6 nm, CuO bulk particles 200 nm 10, 100, 500, 1000 mg L−1 The seeds were allowed to germinate for 6 days Oxidative damage to plant DNA, inhibition of seedling growth (root and shoot growth) [105]
Elsholtzia splendens CuO NPs 34–52 nm, CuO bulk particles ˃1000 nm 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 mg L−1 Cu—tolerant plant, the seeds were allowed to germinate for 5 days, hydroponic experiments No effect on seed germination, reduction of root length, accumulation of CuO NPs in root and leaf cells [113]
Zea mays, Oryza sativa CuO NPs 40–80 nm 500, 1000, 2000 mg L−1 Seed germination was investigated CuO NPs inhibited root elongation at 2000 mg L−1 (95.73% for maize and 97.28% for rice) of two crop plants and reduced shoot length of maize by 30.98% [91]