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Table 7 Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles based on iron oxides

From: Nanoparticles based on essential metals and their phytotoxicity

Plant Type of nanoparticle, particle size (nm) Particle concentration Comment Observed effect References
Helianthus annuus γ-Fe2O3 20–100 nm 50, 100 mg L−1 Effect on the root functionality was investigated The treatment with 50 mg L−1 FeNPs significantly reduced the root hydraulic conductivity (Lo) by up to 26% at 100 mg L−1 FeNPs, but it had no effect on plant biomass production, on shoot or root elongation, and it did not induce oxidative stress in the plant [106]
Solanum lycopersicum nZVI < 50 nm γ-Fe2O3 20–100 nm 50, 100 mg L−1 Effect on the root functionality was investigated The treatment with 100 mg L−1 of Fe2O3 NPs inhibited 40% of the root hydraulic conductivity (Lo), with nZVI no effect on Lo was observed [73]
Lactuca sativa FeOx NPs <50 nm 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg L−1 A 5-day seed germination test was used to test how different FeOx NPs affected the plant growth in comparison with their respective ionic or solid counterparts FeOx NPs significantly enhanced root elongation of lettuce seedlings by 12%–26%, indicating that FeOx NPs could be used as an Fe fertilizer as well at low application rates (5–20 mg L−1). At a concentration of 50 mg L−1, FeOx NPs decreased root elongation of lettuce seedlings by 20% [83]
Oryza sativa γ-Fe2O3 7–13 nm 2, 20, 200 mg L−1 A 7-day seed germination test was used Root phytohormone inhibition abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was positively correlated with Fe2O3 NPs concentrations, indicating that Fe2O3 had a significant influence on the production of these hormones [107]