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Table 4 The specific surface area, mean particle size and crystallite size of LiCoO2 prepared with different precursors

From: Characteristics and properties of nano-LiCoO2 synthesized by pre-organized single source precursors: Li-ion diffusivity, electrochemistry and biological assessment

SSA (m2/g)
Annealed 1-LiOPh 8-LiOtBu 9-(LiOPh + LiOtBu) 10-LiOiPr 12-LiOMe 11-LiOEt
500 °C 9.46 (025) 16.50 (0.2) 9.62 (0.2) 11.50 (0.3) 19.70 (0.12) not measured
600 °C 2.59 (0.015) 12.50 (0.14) 0.95 (0.03) 3.65 (0.05) 8.00 (0.07) 0.95 (0.01)
700 °C 0.50 (0.02) 6.10 (0.17) 0.78 (0.02) 3.04 (0.05) 5.50 (0.05) 0.34 (0.02)
Particle size (P)* and crystal size(C)** (nm)
  P(1) C(1) P(8) C(8) P(9) C(9) P(10) C(10) P(12) C(12) P(11) C(11)
500 °C 126 (2) 50 (2) 72 (1) 60 (2) 124 (2) 75 (2) 103 (2) 40 (1) 60 (1) 50 (4) Not measured Not measured
600 °C 459 (2) 45 (2) 95 (1), 40*** 45 (3) 1251 (26) 150 (3) 326 (3) 75 (1) 149 (1), 15*** 45 (1) 1251 (9) 110 (3)
700 °C 2376 (60) 90 (2) 195 (4) 55 (2) 1529 (26) 185 (1) 391 (4) 295 (1) 216 (1) 170 (2) 3494 (130) 285 (1)
  1. * The mean particle size was determined by the equation of d = K/(ρ×SBET), where K is the shape factor, ρ is the density of the material (5.05 g/cc). and SBET is the specific surface area of the material
  2. ** Crystal size was determined using Scherrer equation d = Kλ/(B cosθ), where d is the mean crystallite size in volume-weight, λ is the wavelength of the X-rays, B is the width of a peak at a half maximum due to size effects assuming that there is no strain, K is a constant value of 0.89, and θ is the incident angle
  3. *** Particle sizes were obtained after 1 h of ball milling