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Table 1 A summary of the applications of nanomaterials in stem cell differentiation

From: Nanomaterials modulate stem cell differentiation: biological interaction and underlying mechanisms

Nanomaterials Chemical modifications/components Cell lineages generated Cell sources References
Nanoparticles and nano-carriers
AuNPs   Osteogenic differentiation mMSCs/hADSCs/hMSCs [34, 44, 47]
AuNPs Chitosan Osteogenic differentiation hADSCs [49]
AgNPs   Osteogenic differentiation mMSCs [29]
AgNPs   Osteogenic differentiation hUSCs [57]
AgNPs miR-148b Osteogenic differentiation hADSCs [58]
GO   Dopamine neurons mESCs [33]
GQD   Osteoblasts and adipocytes rBMSCs [79]
Silica nanoparticles Insulin Adipogenic differentiation rMSCs [94]
Silica nanoparticles AA Cardiac differentiation hESCs [15]
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles HNF3β plasmid DNA Hepatocyte-like cells miPSCs [95]
Silica nanoparticles PEDF siRNA Self-renewal and differentiation hCSCs [96]
IONPs   Osteogenic differentiation hBMSCs [65]
IONPs HSA/FGF2 Neuronal, adipogenic and osteogenic lineages hMSCs [67]
Barium titanate nanoparticles   Proliferation and differentiation rMSCs [68]
DNA nanotubes Peptide RGDS Neurons mNSCs [114]
Chitosan-based-microRNA nanoparticles AntimiR-138 Osteogenic differentiation rMSCs [104]
Polymeric nanoparticles RA Neuronal differentiation mNSCs/hiPSCs/mouse SVZ stem cells [99, 100, 130]
Chitosan nanoparticles Hepatocyte growth factor Hepatocytes mBMSCs [129]
Polyethyleneimine complex nanoparticles RA Neuronal differentiation mESCs [98]
Polymeric nanoparticles siSOX9 and RA Neurons mNSCs [140]
2D and 3D nano-scaffolds
AuNPs-loaded functionalized nanofibers PCL/SF/AV/VitB12/GNP fibers Cardiac differentiation hMSCs [51]
AuNPs-loaded hybrid nanofibers BSA/PVA scaffolds Cardiac differentiation hMSCs [46]
TiO2 nanotubes   Osteogenic differentiation hADSCs/rBMSCs [35, 62]
TiO2-coated CoCrMo   Osteogenic differentiation hMSCs [141]
TiO2 scaffolds   Osteogenic differentiation hADSCs [14]
GR/TiO2 heterojunction   Neurons hNSCs [142]
 GR Laminin-coated Neurons hNSCs [76]
 GR   Osteogenic differentiation hMSCs [41]
GO-PLGA nanofiber scaffolds   Osteogenic differentiation hMSCs [78]
rGO-collagen hybrid scaffold   Neural cells rBMSCs [77]
Graphene nanogrids   Osteogenic differentiation hMSCs [143]
Aligned SWCNTs   Osteogenic differentiation hMSCs [131]
SWCNTs   Adipogenesis rMSCs [87]
MWCNTs Poly(ε-caprolactone) Cardiac differentiation hMSCs [90]
MWCNTs Carboxylated Neural cells hBMSCs [86]
MWCNTs PEG Osteogenic differentiation hMSCs [40]
MWCNTs-incorporated nanocomposite scaffolds   Cartilage regeneration hBMSCs [88, 89]
Xanthan and magnetite nanoparticles hybrid scaffolds   Neurons mESCs [144]
PLLA/PBLG/collagen nanofibrous   Osteogenic lineages Rabbits-ADSCs [145]