Skip to main content

Table 2 Characterization of in vivo toxicity according to changes in mRNA expression (transcriptomics), proteome (proteomics), and metabolome (metabolomics) with categories

From: Role of omics techniques in the toxicity testing of nanoparticles

P Size Sp Appl Exp Regulated pathway(s) St Im De Pr Mo Me Ve Si O References
A. Transcriptomics
 Ag 20 Rat Inhal 381 µg/m3; 12 weeks Kidney: cell cycle, xenobiotic metabolism, extracellular signaling     X      X [154]
 Au 4, 100 Mouse Iv 426 mg/kg; 30 min Liver: apoptosis, cell cycle, inflammation, metabolic process   X X X   X     [155]
 CNT 4 × 67, 0.8 × 11, 3.8 × 49, 5.7 × 49 Mouse It, oroph, inhal, Meta-analysis Lung: inflammation resembling different disease pattern   X         [51]
 Cu 25 Rat Oral 50–200 µg/kg; 5 days Kidney: coagulation, cell signaling, amino acid metabolism       X    X [84]
 C60, NiO 60, 59 Rat Inhal 0.12 mg/m3; 3 days–4 weeks Lung: C60: immune process; NiO: ox. stress, inflammation X X         [156]
 SiO2 (Cd-doped) 20 Rat It 1 mg/animal; 7–30 days Lung: circadian rhythm, inflammation, cell cycle   X   X      X [157]
 TiO2 5–6 Mouse Ig 10 mg/kg; 90 days Ovary: estradiol, progesterone metabolism          X [88]
 TiO2 5–6 Mouse Ig 10 mg/kg; 90 days Liver: inflammation, apoptosis, ox. stress, metabolic process, cell cycle, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, cell differentiation X X X X X X   X   [87]
 TiO2 5–6 Mouse Oral 2.5–10 µg/kg; 90 days Spleen: inflammation, apoptosis, ox. stress, metabolic processes, ion transport, signal transduction, cell proliferation/division, cytoskeleton   X X   X X   X X [89]
 TiO2 8, 20, 300 Mouse It 18–486 µg/animal; 1–90 days Lung: inflammation, all same pattern   X         [85]
 TiO2 10, 20.6, 38 Mouse It 18–486 µg/animal; 1–28 days Lung: inflammation   X         [158]
 TiO2 10.5, 10, 20.6 Mouse It, oroph, inhal, Meta-analysis Lung: inflammation resembling different disease pattern   X         [51]
 TiO2 20.6 Mouse Inhal 42 mg/m3; 1–22 days pn Liver of offspring: females retinoid pathway          X [90]
 TiO2 20.6 Mouse It 162 µg/animal; 1–22 days Lung: inflammation   X         [86]
B. Proteomics
 TiO2 < 25 Mouse Ip 100 µg/animal; 7 days Lung: ox. stress X          [159]
 TiO2 < 25 Mouse Ip 100 µg/animal; 7 days Liver: inflammation, apoptosis, ox. stress X X X        [160]
 TiO2 < 25 Mouse Ip 100 µg/animal; 7 days Brain: ox. stress X          [161]
 TiO2 < 25 Mouse Ip 100 µg/animal; 7 days Kidney: ox. stress, signal transduction X        X   [162]
 TiO2 25 Mouse Id 5 µg/animal; 24 h Lymph node: inflammation, lipid metabolism, mRNA processing, nucleosome assembly   X        X [163]
 ZnO 35 Rat Inhal 12.1 mg/m3; 24 h Lung: S100A8, S100A9, inflammation   X         [164]
C. Metabolomics
 MnO 10 Rat Iv 10 mg/kg; 6–48 h Plasma, urine, tissues: lipid, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism       X     [165]
 PS, lipid polymeric 50, 40, 143, 160, 165 Mouse It 200, 500 µg/animal; 24 h BAL: inflammation (all, hydrophobic > less hydrophobic)   X         [91]
 ZnO 35, 250 Rat Inhal 1–5 mg/kg; 24 h BAL, lung: cell anti-oxidation, energy metabolism, DNA damage and membrane stability X      X    X [166]
  1. Application (Appl) and Exposure (Exp) with dose and duration of treatment with nanoparticles is given. If a range is indicated, several concentrations or time points have been evaluated