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Table 1 The atomic ratio of O(1s)/C(1s) and carbon bonding composition determined by the XPS for GO

From: Graphene oxide conjugated with polymers: a study of culture condition to determine whether a bacterial growth stimulant or an antimicrobial agent?

Atomic ratio O(1s)/C(1s) Carbon bonding composition (%)
C–C/C=C C–O C=O O–C=O
43.2% 58 8 25 11