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Table 1 Summary of nanotechnology based methods for oral cancer detection and diagnosis

From: Nanotechnology: a promising method for oral cancer detection and diagnosis

Detection method Nanomaterial type Surface functionalization Cell line/sample/model Characteristic References
Magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles Surface modified with folate-chitosan conjugate ‘shell’ Prostatic cancer PC3 cells, oral cancer KB cells and normal L929 cells Shorten the overall T2 relaxation time thereby enhancing the nanoparticle relaxivity to provide better in vitro MR imaging [59]
Gd3+ doped amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles Conjugated with folic acid HUVEC, PBMC, oral cancer KB cells and normal L929 cells Enhance image contrast and agent biocompatibility for molecular receptor targeted MRI [60]
Photoacoustic imaging Plasmonic nanosensors Directional conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies and PEG A metastatic murine model of OSCC Offer a rapid and effective tool to noninvasively identify micrometastases [77]
Optical coherence tomography Spherical Au nanoparticles Conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies and PEG A standard hamster cheek pouch model Enhance the contrast and penetration depth in vivo OCT images [65]
Surface plasmon resonance scattering Colloidal gold nanoparticles Unconjugated or conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies Nonmalignant epithelial cell line HaCaT, and two malignant oral epithelial cell lines HOC313 clone 8 and HSC3 Find specific molecular biosensor techniques for the diagnosis of oral epithelial living cancer cells in vivo and in vitro [81]
Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy Colloidal gold nanoparticles, self-assembled SERS-active gold nanoparticle monolayer film Colloidal gold nanoparticles was conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies Saliva samples from 5 oral cancer patients and 5 healthy individuals Develop a simple and cost-effective method for preparing highly sensitive SERS-based saliva assay [63]
Small spherical gold nanoparticles Modified with a specific spacer DNA sequence in the core Oral cancer HSC-3 cells Improve the current temporal resolution and image quality of Raman-based cell images [89]
Plasmonic GNRs Absorbed on a piece of filter paper OSCC cell line CAL27, exfoliated cells from 10 healthy individuals and 10 oral cancer patients Enable highly sensitive, specific, rapid, and noninvasive cancer screening [94]
Near-infrared absorption imaging GNRs Conjugated with Rose Bengal Human OSCC cell line CAL27 and Tca8113 Demonstrate multi-channel, rapid and quantitative detection of oral cancer cells based on near-infrared absorption [93]
Diffusion reflection imaging GNRs Conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies A tissue sample of OSCC Map tumor margins in OSCC with high resolution and depth of penetration [102]
GNRs Conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies A rat model of OSCC Introduce a new and simple tool for detecting residual disease intraoperatively [103]
GNRs Conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies Tissue samples from 15 various dysplastic lesions, 10 OSCC lesions, and 5 healthy controls Discriminate benign from malignant oral lesions with an objective GNRs reflection measurement [104]
Quantum dots imaging Water-soluble quantum dots Conjugated with biotin and PEG Human tongue cancer cells Tca8113 Develop of a kind of water-soluble quantum dot for immunofluorescent labeling of cancer cells [111]
Goat anti-rabbit QD655nm-IgG QD-IgG compound that binds to survivin and HSP70 by antigen–antibody reaction Human tongue cancer cells Tca8113 Evaluate the application of quantum dotsand the FITC labeling technique in Tca8113 cells, and to compare the fluorescence intensity and photostability of these techniques [112]
Goat anti-mouse QD525nm-IgG and goat anti-mouse QD655nm-IgG) QD-IgG compound that binds to HSP70 and HSF-1 by antigen–antibody reaction Human tongue cancer cells SCC-25 Develop a quantum dot-based approach for heat shock protein 70 and heat shock factor 1 kinetics following heat shock [113]
Near-infrared quantum dots Conjugated with membrane-penetrating polypeptides Human oral squamous carcinoma BcaCD885 cells Explore the competence of near-infrared luminescent quantum dots for visual in vivo imaging on oral squamous carcinoma BcaCD885 cells [114]
Near-infrared quantum dots Conjugated with arginine–glycine–aspartic acid Nude mice bearing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Use intravenously injected near-infrared quantum dots conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid to generate high quality images of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma [118]
Near-infrared quantum dots Conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies OSCC nude mice model Investigate in vivo visible imaging of OSCC by targeting EGFR with near-infrared quantum dots [119]
Near-infrared quantum dots Conjugated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies Orthotopic tongue cancer-bearing nude mice Construct multifunctional Ag2Se–cetuximab quantum dots for targeted imaging and therapy of orthotopic tongue cancer [117]
Saliva peptide finger print analysis Nano magnetic beads Have a magnetic core enabling weak cation exchange Whole saliva samples from 40 OSCC patients and 23 healthy controls Predict potential biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis [125]
Single biomarker detection Gold nanoarray Binded to the Fc region of the TNF-α capture antibody Samples (type unknown) from an OSCC patient Enable ultrasensitive detection of TNF-α [35]
Nano-bio-chip Labeled with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies Brush biopsy from 41 OPMD or OSCC patients and 11 healthy volunteers Provide rapid detection and quantitation of EGFR biomarker [126]
Gold nano beads Coated with antiCD63 IgG secondary antibody Saliva samples from healthy volunteers Explore quantitative approaches to biochemical characterization of exosomes [127]
Multiplexed biomarker detection Nanostructured microfluidic array Combined gold nanoparticle surfaces with magnetic beads massively labeled with horseradish peroxidase enzyme labels 78 serum samples from oral cancer patients and 49 cancer-free controls Provide a rapid four-protein panel serum test [129]
Nano-UPLC Label-free Squamous cancer lines HN12, HN13, OSCC-3, CAL27 and normal epidermal keratinocyte noncancer line HaCaT Develop a lable-free approach to identify and quantify proteins in complex samples [130]
  1. PLGA poly lactide-co-glycolide, OSCC oral squamous cell carcinoma, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor, PEG polyethylene glycol, UPLC ultra-performance liquid chromatography, GNRs gold nanorods, HUVEC human primary endothelial cells, PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cells, OCT optical coherence tomography