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Table 2 Graphene-based DNA biosensors with electrochemical detection

From: Recent advances in graphene-based biosensor technology with applications in life sciences

Detected element Sensing material Detection range Refs.
dsDNA
ssDNA
Graphene nanosheets
Graphene nanowalls
2.0 pM to less than 10 mM
0.1 fM to 10 mM
[66]
dsDNA Epitaxial graphene 1 µM [68]
BRCA1 DNA Graphene/Au 1 fM [69]
Staphylococcus aureus nuc gene sequence CTS–Co3O4–GR/CILE (Chitosan–Co3O4–graphene–carbon ionic liquid electrode) 1.0 × 10−12 to 1.0 × 10−6 M with the detection limit as 4.3 × 10−13 M [70]
dsDNA Thionine–graphene nanocomposite (Thi–G) 1.0 × 10−12 to 1.0 × 10−7 M and low detection limit at 1.26 × 10−13 M [71]
Survivin gene Graphene–nanostructure gold nanocomposite film glassy carbon electrode (G-3D Au/GCE) 50–5000 fM detection limit at 3.4 fM [72]
dsDNA [Co(phen)2(Cl)(H2O)]+ AuNPs/GR (gold–graphene) modified electrode 2.50 × 10−11 to 1.25 × 10−9 M
Detection limit at 8.33 × 10−12 M
[73]
ssDNA Graphene analogue tungsten sulfide–graphene (WS2–Gr) composite 0.0–500 pM
Detection limit at 0.0023 pM
[74]
Multidrug resistance (MDR) DNA Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets functionalized with Au nanoparticles (N–G/Au) Detection limit
3.12 × 10−15 M
[75]
ssDNA Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles 1.0 × 10−14 to 1.0 × 10−6 M
Detection limit 3.63 × 10−15 M
[76]
ssDNA of HIV-1 gene Graphene–Nafion composite film Detection limit 2.3 × 10−14 M [77]
DNA AuNCs/GR nanobybrids and exonuclease III (Exo III) aided cascade target 0.02 fM to 20 pM
Detection limit at 0.057 fM
[78]23
ssDNA Graphene and polyaniline nanowires (PANIws) modified glassy carbon electrode 2.12 × 10−6 to 2.12 × 10−12 M
Detection 3.25 × 10−13 M
[79]
dsDNA, ssDNA and single nucleotide polymorphism Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) with graphene core 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−12 M
Detection limit 1 pM
[80]
ssDNA Electroactive dye azophloxine functionalized graphene nanosheets (AP–GNs) 1.0 × 10−15 to 1.0 × 10−11 M
Detection limit at 4.0 × 10−16 M
[81]
ssDNA Gold nanorods decorated GO sheets (Au NRs–GO) 1.0 × 10−9 to 1.0 × 10−14 M
Detection limit at 3.5 × 10−15 M
[82]
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) GO/pencil graphite electrode (GO/PGE) 20 to 160 µg/mL
Detection limit 2.02 µM
[83]
DNA GO–Chitosan (CHI) nano-composite 10 fM to 50 nM Detection limit 10 fM (60 s hybridization times) and 100 fM at 25 °C [84]
ssDNA ssDNA-Fe@AuNPs-AETGO 1.0 × 10−14 to 1.0 × 10−8 M
Detection limit 2.0 × 10−15 M
[85]
ssDNA rGO-graphene double-layer electrode 10−7 to 10−12 M
Detection limit 1.58 × 10−13 M
[86]
MDR1 gene Au nanoparticles/toluidine blue–graphene oxide (Au NPs/TB–GO) 1.0 × 10−11 to 1.0 × 10−9 M
Detection limit 2.95 × 10−12 M
[87]
DNA AuNPs/ERGNO/GCE 2.0 × 10−7 to 1.0 × 10−6 M
Detection limit at 1.0 × 10−6 M
[88]
ssDNA ssDNA–AuNPs–ERGO 1 × 10−17 M to 1 × 10−13 M
Detection limit 5 aM
[67]
ssDNA Gold nanoparticles decorated rGO (Au NPs/rGO) 0.1 µM to 0.1 fM
Detection limit at 35 aM
[89]
Listeria monocytogenes Au/GR/CILE 1.0 × 10−12 to 1.0 × 10−6 M
Detection limit 2.9 × 10−13 M
[90]
Amelogenin gene (AMEL) rGO modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/RGO) 1.0 × 10−20 to 1.0 × 10−14 M
Detection limit 3.2 × 10−21 M
[25]
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) DNA rGO-modified glassy carbon electrode 10−13 M [91]
ssDNA Thionine functionalized rGO (Thi–rGO) 1.0 × 10−17 to 1.0 × 10−12 M
Detection limit 4.28 × 10−19 M
[92]