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Table 1 Common pesticide classes

From: Nanomaterial enabled sensors for environmental contaminants

Class of chemical pesticides Examples Types Effects
Carbamates Carbaryl, methomyl, propoxur, aldicarb Fungicide, insecticide, acaricide Non-persistent, cholinesterase-inhibiting, not very selective, toxic to birds and fish
Neonicotinoids Acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam Insecticide Water soluble, concern regarding persistence and bioaccumulation
Organochlorines Aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor; lindane, methoxychlor; toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP), DDT Insecticide, acaricide, fungicide Persistent, bioaccumulative, affects the ability to reproduce, develop, and to withstand environmental stress by depressing the nervous, endocrine and immune systems
Organophosphates Schradan; parathion; malathion Insecticide, acaricide Non-persistent, systemic (cholinesterase-inhibiting), not very selective, toxic to humans
Phenoxy 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T Herbicide Selective effects on humans and mammals are not well known
2,4-D: potential to cause cancer in laboratory animals
2,4,5-T: is the source of a toxic contaminant dioxin
Pyrethroids Fenpropathrin, deltamethrin, cypermethrin Insecticide Target-specific -more selective than the organophosphates or carbamates, generally not acutely toxic to birds or mammals but particularly toxic to aquatic species
Triazines Atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine Herbicides Persistent, binds to the plastoquinone-binding protein in photosystem II, endocrine disruptor in humans