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Fig. 2 | Journal of Nanobiotechnology

Fig. 2

From: Synthesis and biomedical applications of nanoceria, a redox active nanoparticle

Fig. 2

Mechanism of antibacterial activity of nanoceria. a Direct contact, showing the direct interaction of Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) with bacterial cell wall that damage the cell wall and gets penetrated inside the cell and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which affects DNA, ribosomes, and proteins. b Indirect contact, showing the interaction of CNPs with the bacterial environment outside the cell and generates ROS that further enters into the cell by damaging the cell wall and affects DNA, ribosomes, and proteins. Both mechanisms ultimately lead to cell death

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