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Fig. 4 | Journal of Nanobiotechnology

Fig. 4

From: Synthesis and biomedical applications of nanoceria, a redox active nanoparticle

Fig. 4

Mechanism of pro-oxidant and antioxidant effect of nanoceria. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) showing pro-oxidant effect in the cancer cell by entering into the cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and get released into the cytoplasm from the endosome. This acidic intracellular pH favors the SOD mimetic activity of CNPs, which reduce superoxide into H2O2 but inhibits its CAT mimetic activity resulting in the accumulation of the huge amount of H2O2 in the cancer cell. These ROS further causes mitochondrial disruption, protein oxidation, and denaturation of DNA that results in apoptosis of cancer cell. CNPs showing antioxidant effect in normal cell (having physiological pH) by entering into the cell through endocytosis and scavenging ROS (O2·or H2O2 or ·OH) due to [1] SOD mimetic activity in which superoxide is reduced into H2O2 and [2] CAT mimetic activity in which H2O2 gets further degraded into water, hence protecting the normal cell

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