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Table 11 Antibacterial activity

From: Synthesis and biomedical applications of nanoceria, a redox active nanoparticle

S. no Particle size/morphology Type of bacteria Conc. Observation References
1. 7 nm/ellipsoidal Escherichia coli 0 to 730 mg/L A large amount of CNPs was adsorbed on the E. coli, showing cytotoxicity on E. coli [118]
2. 140 nm Escherichia coli 10 mg/mL A drastic decrease in the concentration of E. coli [123]
3. 7 nm 25 nm/truncated octahedral, rhombus or irregular Escherichia coli 10, 100, and 200 mg/L Direct contact of CNPs with the surface of E. coli causes a rise in intracellular ROS level, which shows antibacterial activity [125]
4. 8–10 nm Escherichia coli 4.3 ppm Dextran-coated CeO2 are non-toxic or exert mild anti-bacterial activity to E. coli [126]
5. 25-50 nm Escherichia coli 5.0 g/L Under UV irradiation (2 h), CeO2 inhibited the growth of E. coli cells due to oxidative stress [127]
6. 100 nm/octahedral or truncated octahedral Escherichia coli 0.075, 0.125, 0.15, 0.175 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0 and 30 mg/mL The interaction of nanoceria with non ionic surfactants enhanced their antibacterial activity against E. coli [128]
7. 25–30 nm/elliptically spherical Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Nanoceria inhibited bacterial growth by more than 90% [59]
8. 10–20 nm E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. enterica, S. aureus, and E. faecalis 50 mg/mL, 250 mg/mL and 500 mg/mL Nanoceria disrupted cell membranes of bacteria which led to the irreversible damage to the cell envelope which further results in cell death [129]
9. 25 nm Escherichia coli (KACC 10005), S. Typhimurium (KCCM 40253), B. subtilis (KACC 14394) and E. faecalis (KACC 13807) 16 µg/mL, 8 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL Bacterial toxicity is due to the direct interaction between the nanoceria with bacteria which further results in cell death [124]
10. 5 nm Streptococcus mutans 0.22 mg/mL Nanoceria seems to be very effective against S. mutans [131]
11. 5 nm/spherical Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Shigella dysenteriae 10, 50 and 100 mg Nanoceria showed strong antibacterial activity [58]
12. 42 nm/spherical Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus 500, 750 and 1000 µg/50 mL With the increase in the concentration of nanoceria, zone of inhibition also increases in the case of P. aeruginosa [96]
13. 11 nm/spherical Staphylococcus 65 aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 1, 3 and 5 mg/disc Nanoceria exhibited a good antibacterial activity and also showed the inhibition of respective bacterial biofilm formation [132]
14. 27 nm/spherical S. aureus MTCC-96, S. pyogenes MTCC-1926, P. aeruginosa MTCC-4673, and K. pneumoniae MTCC-109 200 µg Interaction with nanoparticles causes bacterial cell death due to the generation of reactive oxygen species [133]
15. 3.5–6.5 nm Escherichia coli Nanoceria significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli [121]
16. 3–4 nm/spherical Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis 250 μg/mL and 500 µg/mL Nanoceria possess perfect antibacterial activity against the bacteria at basic pH values as compare to acidic pH values [122]
17. 40–100 nm/spherical, Cubical and Circular Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris 20 µl of 25%, 50% and 100% conc. Nanoceria was very effective against the test organisms and also showed a zone of inhibition for Gram-negative bacteria [130]