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Table 1 Natural biodegradable polymers commonly used in tendon/ligament regeneration

From: Biodegradable polymer nanocomposites for ligament/tendon tissue engineering

Natural biomaterialAdvantagesDisadvantages
CollagenBiocompatible; major component of ligaments [7]; reasonable mechanical properties [9]Poor mechanical strength; [7] risk of immunogenicity; [27] fast degradation [42]
SilkGood mechanical properties; slow rate biodegradation [9]; loses its strength after 1 year, in vivo [33]Limited cell adhesion [7]
AlginateBiocompatible ECM component; can be in sponge or hydrogel form [7]; proper substrate for fibroblasts growth and collagen type I production [9]Lacks mechanical properties [7]
Hyaluronic acidBiocompatible; can be in sponge or hydrogel form [7]Natural form with very short degradation time [43]
ChitosanBiocompatible; can be in sponge or hydrogel form [7]; proper substrate for fibroblasts growth and Col type I production [9]Lacks mechanical properties [7]