a–c In vivo antitumor effects. a Tumor volume in 4T1 tumor-bearing nude mice treated with control, S-LPNs, C-LPNs, S/C-LPNs, and S/C-pW-LPNs; *P < 0.05. b Body weight change in nude mice (mean ± SD, n = 5). c Tumor photographs. d–f in vivo anti-metastasis activity in 4T1 lung metastasis model. d Lungs of nude mice treated with control, S/C-LPNs, and S/C-pW-LPNs; H&E staining of lung tissue sections. e The number of surface metastases in the lung tissue (mean ± SD, n = 5). f Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of CD 31, MMP-9, and TGF-β1 in tumor and lung tissue sections treated with control and S/C-pW-LPNs (scale bar = 200 μm).