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Table 3 Relevant studies focusing on nanoparticle-based therapy for COPD

From: Novel drug delivery systems targeting oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review

Type Nanocarrier composition Drug Method of preparation size Route of administration Mode of action Ref
Solid lipid nanoparticle Lipid and surfactant Proanthocyanidins Melt-emulsion method 243 nm H441 cells Reduce ROS production [109]
Lipid Carvacrol Fusion-emulsification method 78.72 nm Inhalation Minimize the inhalation injury by reducing malondialdehyde and minimize the histological change [110]
Inorganic nanoparticles Gold nanoparticles Au 21 nm Inhalation AuNP can be used as nanocarrier (rapid binding to the alveolar epithelium) [111]
Ferrous and ferric chlorides Antibody conjugates Controlled precipitation approach 350 nm Intravenous Enable endothelial delivery of active ingredients and protected from proteolysis CAT and SOD [106]
Cerium oxide (IV) nanoparticles SOD and CAT   2–3 nm SOD enzymatic assay Against ROS [112]
Al2O3 NPs Al2O3 (Purchased from Plasmachem Gmb)   Inhalation Al2O3 NPs exposure lead to suppression of PTPN6 and phosphorylation of STAT3. rescue of PTPN6 expression or application of a STAT3 inhibitor which protect lungs from inflammation and apoptosis [113]
Biodegradable nanoparticles Poly(ε-caprolactone) Lipoic acid Interfacial polymer deposition 191–349 nm In vitro lipid peroxidation system Protection against lipid peroxidation [114]
HPOX HBA Single emulsion method ~ 450 nm RAW 264.7 cells and in vivo intranasally inhibit NO production by suppressing iNOS expression in LPS-activated cells [115]
polyoxalate HBA Conventional single emulsion method ~ 500 nm Intratracheally, injection Scavenge H2O2, suppress the expression of iNOS, COX-2, (IL)-1β [116]
Poly(trolox ester) trolox Single-step emulsion technique 120–220 nm U937 cells Enzymatic degradation to release active antioxidants and suppress almost 50% of oxidative stress in the cells [117]
Polymer nanoparticles PHEA-PLA-PEG2000 FP HPH (freeze drying) 161.3 ± 4.14.0 nm Immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line Improve drug permeation through the mucus layer, reduce the survivin expression [118]
PEG-DSPE Budesonide HPH (freeze drying) 550 nm Inhalation [119]
PVP; PVA or dextran Curcumin Solvent and antisolvent precipitation method 30 nm Inhalation Inhibit LPS-induced inflammation in alveolar macrophages in a time dependent manner [120, 121]
PGA-co-PDL, cationic lipid DOTAP microRNAs Single emulsion solvent evaporation method 244.8 ± 4.40 nm Human alveolar adenocarcinoma A549 cells Reduce IRAK1 expression and dampen IL-8 promoter reporter output [122, 123]
PLGA, calcium phosphate, chitosan or PEI siRNA, pDNA, FITC-BSA Modified the rapid precipitation method (freeze drying) Below 200 nm HeLa cells Increase the encapsulated siRNA or DNA and help them across the cell membrane [124, 125]
PLGA, calcium phosphate, polyethylenimine siRNA Modified the rapid precipitation method (freeze drying) ~ 145 nm Nasal instillation Regulate the expression of IFN-γ, CCL-2 and IP-10 to achieve a decreased inflammation of the lungs [124, 125]
Dendrimers PEGylated polylysine dendrimers [126] 11–78 kDa Pulmonary instillation Control delivery of medications to lungs by modified with variously sized PEG groups in particle surface [127]
PAMAM dendrimers (PEGylated or not) 5.1–9.9 nm Pulmonary delivery pharyngeal aspiration (P.A.) technique Enhance dendrimer reaching the endothelial cells and systemic circulation. P.A. administration promotes the passive targeting of dendrimers to lymph nodes [128]
TEE modified PAMAM dendrimers siRNA Vortex 257 nm Inhalation Target lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells and silence genes [129]
PAMAM dendrimer TNF-α siRNA Vortex 127–153 nm RAW264.7 cells, intranasal in acute lung inflammation model Gene silence (targeted TNF-α) [130]
Polymer hybrid nanoparticles PLGA and DOTAP siRNA DESE Below 250 nm H1299 cells Gene silence (targeted TNF-α) [131]
PLGA and DOTAP pHDAC2, MnPD Modified solvent displacement method  ~ 120 nm A549 cells Reduce ROS level and glucocorticoid resistance [123]
Nanocrystals Pluronic F68 or lecithin Budesonide Wet-milling technique 150–400 nm Facilitate easier industrial use of nanocrystals [132]
Multifunctional nanomaterials Fibroin Sulforaphane, CeNPs and PEI passivated CDs Modified solvent displacement method 365 ± 20.2 nm Cell evaluation Against oxidative stress and imaging [133]
  1. DESE: double emulsion solvent evaporation method; HBA: p-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol; trolox: antioxidant and water-soluble analogue of Vitamin E; Al2O3 NPs: aluminum oxide nanoparticles; FP: fluticasone propionate; HPH: high-pressure homogenization; PLGA: poly(lactide-co-glycolide); HPOX: HBA-incorporated copolyoxalate; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2; U937: Human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cells; PEG-DSPE: Polyethylene glycol and phosphatidylethanolamine; PVP: polyvinylpyrrolidone; PVA: polyvinyl alcohol; PGA-co-PDL: poly (glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone; DOTAP: dioleoyltrimethy- lammoniumpropane; PLA: poly(lactic acid); pHDAC2: HDAC2-encoding plasmid DNA; MnPD: Mn-porphyrin dimer; CeNPs: cationic cerium oxide nanoparticles; CDs: carbon dots