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Table 4 Relevant studies focusing on microparticles for oxidative stress inhabition

From: Novel drug delivery systems targeting oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review

Type Drug Key excipient Method of preparation Size Mode of action Ref
Microscale dry powder A 1,2,4-triazole motif and quinolinone Lactose Jet milling Less than 2 μm Bifunctional MABAs [156]
FP, MF and SX (1) Jet milling
(2) Wet polishing
(1) 2.18–2.53 μm
(2) 0.87–1.49 μm
Corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists [157]
SBS or BD (1) Jet milling
(2) Spray-drying
(1) 0.59–0.65 μm
(2) 0.63–0.69 μm
Short acting β agonist, synthetic glucocorticoid [158]
dimethyl fumarate Mannitol Co-spray dried 0.56–1.08 μm Nrf2 activator drug to treat pulmonary inflammation [159]
naringin Ethanol –water (50:50 v/v) Co-spray dried 3.5 µm Free-radical scavenger drug [160]
Indacaterol and glycopyrronium Decrease IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, MMP-9, PON1, increase TIMP-1 and MDA [161]
BD and RES Ethanol –water (80:20 v/v) Co-spray dried 1.0 µm DECREASE the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS induce alveolar macrophages [162]
Resveratrol Ethanol –water (50:50 v/v) Spray-drying 3.86 µm Scavenge activity of more than 50% of DPPH free radicals [163]
Resveratrol Ethanol–water (50:50 v/v) Spray-drying 3.9 μm The expression of IL-8 from Calu-3 induced with TNF-α, TGF-β1 and LPS were significantly reduced [164]
BD HA Spray-drying 3.12–5.35 μm Glucocorticoid [165]
Sodium ascorbyl phosphate HA co-spray dried 3.4 µm ANTI-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound healing properties [166, 167]
Porous microparticles Anthocyanin PLGA microparticles, HA, β-cyclodextrin (porogen); W1/O/W2 multi-emulsions
freeze drying
5 ~ 10 μm Sustain ATH release characteristics and protract antioxidant activity for DPPH radicals [168, 169]
BD PLGA and PVP modified single emulsion (O/W) solvent evaporation
freeze drying
6 μm [170]
DEX PVAX Double emulsion method
freeze drying
13 μm Scavenge hydrogen peroxide, diminish oxidative stress [114]
Mucoadhesive solid lipid microparticles FP Alginate, chitosan and lipid Ethanolic precipitation technique
(freeze drying)
1 ~ 5 μm ERK1/2 pathway activation [171]
SX Sodium alginate, Pluronic
F68 and lipid
(freeze drying)
3.3 μm Long-acting β2 agonist [172]
NCMPs NAC (1) Phospholipidand, cholesterol;
(2) Lactose
(1) Reverse phase evaporation method
(2) Spray drying
7.2 μm Against TBARS production [100]
MicroRNA l-Leucine and mannitol (1) Oil in water (o/w) single emulsion method;
(2) Spray-drying
4.20 ~ 6.03 µm Genes silence of IRAK1 and TRAF6 [122]
siRNA (1) Lipidoid, PLGA
(2) mannitol or trehalose
(1) DESE
(2) Spray-drying
3.3 µm Dispersed microembedded LPNs had preserved physicochemical characteristics as well as in vitro siRNA release profile and gene silencing [173]
siRNA (1) dendrimer
(2) mannitol, trehalose, inulin
(1) bulk mixing and microfluidics-based mixing
(2) spray-drying
4.8 ~ 5.6 μm The gene silencing efficiency of the nanocomplexes is preserved upon spray drying [174]
Nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs) Curcumin (1) PLGA;
PEG-g-Cs copolymer or Cs
(1) Modified single emulsion − solvent evaporation method;
(2) Spray-drying
3.1–3.9 μm Microparticles have minimal propensity to induce TNF-α release which showed much delayed and reduced macrophage uptake [175]
(2) Leucine or albumin
(1) High-energy wet media milling;
(2) Spray drying
4.39 ~ 5.30 μm Anti-inflammatory activity [176]
Apigenin (1) BSA
(2) lactose and l-leucine
(1) Modified nanoparticle albumin-bound technology
(2) Spray drying
2.47 μm Antioxidant activity of drug is preserved and enhanced by the BSA;, scavenge the DPPH free radial [177]
Clinical study Ribavirin –PRINT –CFI 35% ribavirin with 55% trehalose and 10% trileucine Non-wetting Templates (PRINT) technology 1 μm Against the key respiratory viruses that can cause acute exacerbations in COPD [178]
Ribavirin-97 PRINT-IP 1% PVA Non-wetting Templates (PRINT) technology 1 μm
  1. (1) Refers to microparticle or nanoparticle material; (2) refers to matrix materials.
  2. MABAs: muscarinic antagonist and β2 agonist properties; NCMPs: nanocomposite microparticles; Nrf2: dimethyl fumarate activator; MF: mometasone furoate; SX: salmeterol xinafoate; SBS: salbutamol sulphate; BD: budesonide; RES: resveratrol; HA: hyaluronic acid; PON1: Paraoxonase; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pikryl-hydrazyl; MDA: Malonyl dialdehyde; HSPB5: Alpha B-crystallin; DEX: Dexamethasone; PVAX: vanillyl alcohol-containing copolyoxalate; HPH: high-pressure homogenization; SX: Salmeterol Xinafoate; TPGS: D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate; BSA: bovine serum albumin