Skip to main content

Table 2 Main synthetic method of UCNP and advantages and disadvantages

From: Recent progress in the development of upconversion nanomaterials in bioimaging and disease treatment

Main synthetic method Examples and refs Size range (nm) Advantages Disadvantages
Thermal decomposition method NaNdF4 [44]
β-NaErF4 [68]
50–500 High-quality, uniform size Intermediate toxicity, high cost
Microemulsion method LaF3 [99]
NaYF4 [85],
40–500 Easy to operate, narrow size, high stability, Calcination or annealing usually required
Phase transfer hydrothermal synthesis (La-Dy)VO4 [100], YVO4 [100], NaYF4 [64], 10–1000 Good dispersion, simple procedures, tunable size Specialized reaction vessels are needed
Sol–gel processing GdVO4 [101] 01 30–600 Cheap raw materials, simple procedures Broad particle size and unsuitable for bioapplication