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Table 3 Selected relevant pre-clinical assays based on novel drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles for the treatment of bacterial oral cavity infections

From: State-of-the-art polymeric nanoparticles as promising therapeutic tools against human bacterial infections

Bacteria Loaded molecule Polymeric matrix Surface modifications Dose Admin. route In vitro/In vivo model Results Ref
Streptococcus mutans Chitosan 15–45% of NPs Incubation S. mutans ATCC 25,175 PNPs significantly decrease the cell viability of both microorganisms Ikono et al. [77]
Porphyromonas gingivalis PLGA BAR 0.7 μM of NPs V.o BALB/cByJ mice Treatment of infected mice with PNPs reduce bone loss and IL-17 expression almost to the levels of sham-infected mice and to a greater extent than treatment with an equimolar amount of free BAR Mahmoud et al. [80]
Streptococcus mutans Farnesol /
thonzonium bromide
p(DMAEMA) 0.125–64 μg/ml Incubation S. mutans UA159 serotype c Farnesol PNPs reduce total biomass by disrupting insoluble glucan formation and increase NPs-cell membrane localization
Thonzonium bromide NPs reduce biofilm cell viability by ~ 6 log CFU
Sims et al. [78]
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli
PEG-PAE Triclosan / Salivary proteins 200 µl of NPs Incubation S. aureus or E. coli biofilms In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo results show that PEG-PAE-Triclosan yield better eradication efficacy towards a MDR S. aureus, E. coli and oral streptococcal biofilms than free Triclosan Liu et al. [79]
I.v BALB/c nude mice
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Lactobacillus lactis Streptoccocus mutans Streptoccocus gordonii
Streptoccocus sobrinus
Calcium zinc doxycycline 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and methacrylic acid 0.1–10 mg/mL Incubation P. gingivalis 33,277
S. mutans 700,610
S. sobrinus 33,478
S. gordonii 10,558
L. lactis 12,315
Dox-PNPs are the most effective antibacterial material, followed by Ca-PNPs, Zn-PNPs and finally the non-doped PNPs
P. gingivalis, S. mutans and L. lactis are the most susceptible bacteria, being S. gordonii and S. sobrinus the most resistant to the tested PNPs
Toledano-Osorio et al. [82]
  1. BAR a peptide derived from Streptococcus gordonii, p(DMAEMA) Poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), PEG-PAE poly(ethylene)glycol-poly(b-amino esters)