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Table 6 Selected relevant pre-clinical assays based on novel drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles for the treatment of urinary tract infections

From: State-of-the-art polymeric nanoparticles as promising therapeutic tools against human bacterial infections

Bacteria Loaded molecule Polymeric matrix Surface modifications Dose Admin. route In vitro/In vivo model Results Ref
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Klebsiella Pneumoniae
Chitosan 5 − 100 μg/mL Incubation Pseudo 9 HX053
Pseudo 12 HX103
Kleb 1—HX033
Kleb 2—HX077
Biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae is inhibited at 40 μg/mL of PNPs up to 94 and 92%, respectively Maruthupandy et al. [111]
Escherichia coli proanthocyanidin Chitosan 200 mg/mL of PAC Incubation ExPEC PNPs decrease the ability of ExPEC to
invade epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner
Alfaro-Viquez et al. [105]
Escherichia coli Ag NPs PVP 1.25–0.039 mg/mL Incubation E. coli ATCC 25,922 Coated PNPs inhibit the growth of E. coli at 0.312 mg/mL
Coated NPs imped bacterial growth as early as 8 h at 0.156 mg/Ml
Ashmore et al. [104]
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Proteus mirabilis
Canddida albicans
Hyaluronic acid NA Surface immobilization S. aureus
E. coli
P. aeruginosa
P. mirabilis
C. albicans
Microbial growth is hampered by 85% compared with unmodified PNPs silicone catheters Bracic et al. [109]
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermis
Escherichia coli
Enterococcus faecalis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Proteus mirabilis
Norfloxacin
AgNPs
PLGA NA Surface immobilization S. aureus
S.epidermides
E. coli
E. faecalis
P.aeruginosa
P. mirabilis
The polymer films loaded with the two antibacterial agents avoid biofilm formation for at least 2 weeks Dayyoub et al. [110]
Escherichia coli
Proteus mirabilis
Kanamycin Chitosan NA Surface immobilization E. coli MTCC 729
P. mirabilis MTCC 425
The PNPs surface-modified ureteral stent shows significantly increased antibacterial activity relative to the surface of an unmodified one Kumar et al. [106]
Escherichia coli
Staphylococcus aureus
Chlorin e6 Poly(HDDA-co-DEPA) PEG 100 μl NPs Incubation E. coli ATCC 8739
S. aureus ATCC 6538
In vitro: PNPs show significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity
In vivo: a significant decline in bacterial cells count occurred in urine after PNPs injection together with photodynamic therapy treatment
Liu et al. [108]
50 μl of NPs Bladder injection BALB/c mice
  1. ExPEC extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli; PVP polyvinylpyrrolidone