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Table 2 Effect of various nanoparticles on histone H2AX phosphorylation

From: Epigenetic Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles

Nanomaterials (NMs) and Nanoparticles (NPs) In vitro or in vivo Experimental design Epigenetic effect Reference
SiO2-NPs In vitro Human intestinal CaCo-2 cells exposed to quartz, SiO2-55 nm or SiO2-15 nm at 4, 16, 32 and 64 μg/mL or 15 nm at 64 μg/mL for 24 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX [56]
TiO2-NPs In vitro Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells A549 exposed to 50-1000 µg/mL or 1-100 µg/mL TiO2-NPs for 1, 24, and 48 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX independent of oxidative stress [51]
TiO2 -NPs and Nano-cobalt (Nano-Co) In vitro Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells A549, exposed to 5-15 µg/mL TiO2-NPs and nano-Co for 12 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX [52]
TiO2-NPs In vitro Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells A549, macrophage-likeTHP-1 cells, and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells HPMEC-ST1.6R were exposed to 5, 200, and 800 µg/mL TiO2-NPs for 4 and 24 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX in THP-1 and HPMEC-ST1.6R cells [53]
TiO2-NPs In vitro Human dermal fibroblasts isolated from neonatal foreskins, exposed to 100, 30, 10, 3, and 1 µg/mL TiO2-NPs for 24 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX [54]
TiO2 -NPs In vitro Human skin fibroblasts cell line (BJ), exposed to 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL TiO2-NPs for 24 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX [55]
Ag-NPs In vitro Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells A549, exposed to 10-200 µg/mL Ag-NPs for 48 and 72 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX [35]
Ag-NPs In vitro Human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT), human lung (A549) and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) treated with 1.0 µg/mL Ag-NPs for 4 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX in A549 and MCF-7 cells. [50]
Au-NPs In vitro Human MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MsB-468 breast cancer cells exposed to 100, 250, and 500 µg/mL positively (+) and to 250 and 500 µg/mL negatively (-) charged Au-NPs for 24 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX [57]
CuO-NPs In vitro Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 (well-differentiated) and SK-Hep-1 (poorly differentiated) were exposed to Cu-NPs at 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX, especially in SK-Hep-1 cells, in dose–dependent manner [58]
Cerium dioxide NPs (CeO2-NPs) In vitro Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to CeO2-NPs at 6, 12, and 18 µg/mL for 3-24 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX [59]
Arsenic trioxide NPs (As2O3-NPs) In vitro Human embryonic kidney HEK293 or HeLa cells were exposed to As2O3-NPs at 0.2–0.8 µM for 24, 48, and 72 h Increase in ɣ-H2AX [60]
ZnO-NPs In vivo and in vitro Chickens fed diets containing ZnO-NPs at 10–200 mg/kg for 24 weeks, then artificially inseminated, embryonic development monitored, and ovarian cells cultured Increase in ɣ-H2AX [61]
Iron oxide nanoparticles (S-ION) silica coated in vitro Human A-172 glioblastoma cells exposed to various concentration of S-ION (5-100 µg/ml) for 3 and 24 h Increase in H2AX at 50 and 100 µg/ml S-IOP for 24 h [62]