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Table 3 Changes in histone modifications and histone-modifying enzymes induced by various nanoparticles

From: Epigenetic Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles (NPs) and Nanomaterials (NMs) In vitro or in vivo Experimental design Epigenetic effect Reference
SiO2-NPs In vitro Mouse Bhas 42 cells exposed to 15 or 25 µg/cm2 of the crystalline silica particles Min-U-Sil® 5 for 48 h Increase in H3K4ac, H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K27ac
Increase in HDAC2.
Decrease in HDAC1, HDAC6
SiO2-NPs In vitro Human A549 cells exposed to 50.0 µg/mL SiO2-NPs for 3-12 h Decreased levels of SIRT6 histone deacetylase (HDAC) transcript and protein [63]
TiO2 –NPs In vitro Human dermal fibroblasts isolated from neonatal foreskins, exposed to 100, 30, 10, 3, and 1 µg/mL TiO2 -NPs for 24 h Increase of ATM, and Chk2 phosphorylation [54]
TiO2 -NPs In vitro Human adipose delivered stem cells (hASCs) exposed to 70 nm TiO2–nanotubes Increase of H3K4 methylation at the promoter region of osteogenic genes RUNX2 and osteocalcin (OC)
Inhibition of histone demethylate
RBP2 expression
Au-NPs In vitro Human MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MsB-468 breast cancer cells exposed to 100, 250, and 500 µg/mL positively (+) and to 250 and 500 µg/mL negatively (-) charged Au-NPs for 24 h Activation of MAP kinases in MDA-MB-231 cells
Increase in MKP-1 protein in (-) AU-NPs in both cell lines
Decrease in MKP-1 protein levels by (+) charged Au-NPs.
Deacetylation of histone H3K9/H3K14
Dephosphorylation of histone H3Ser10 at 250 µg/mL negatively charged Au-NPs.
Increase in H3K9/H3K14 acetylation at all doses of positively charged Au-NPs.
Au-NPs In vitro Small airway epithelial cells exposed to 20 nm Au-NPs for 72 h Decrease in H3K27me3 [10]
Arsenic trioxide NPs (As2O3-NPs) In vitro Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T or HeLa cells were exposed to As2O3-NPs at 0.2- 0.8 µM for 24, 48, and 72 h Decrease in global H4K16ac [60]
Ag-NPs In vitro Human A549, MCF7, and HaCat cells exposed to 0.3 µg/mL Ag-NPs for 24 h Increase in histone 3 serine 10 phosphorylation (H3S10ph) [65]
Ag-NPs In vitro Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells A549, exposed to 1.0 µg/mL Ag-NPs for 10 h Increase of histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation (H3S10ph) independent of DNA damage [67]
Ag-NPs In vitro Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells A549, exposed to 10-200 µg/mL Ag-NPs for 48 and 72 h Deacetylation of histone H3 tails and elevation of total histone H3
Phosphorylation of p53
Ag-NPs In vitro Mouse erythroleukemia cells exposed to 8 µg/mL Ag-NPs for 72 h Decrease in global and β-globin specific histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3Kme3) and histone H3 lysine 79 monomethylation (H3K79me1) [68]
CuO-NPs In vitro Human A549 cells exposed to CuO-NPs for 36 h Decrease of total HDAC activity.
Reduction in the levels of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC5, HDAC9, and HDAC11 mRNA transcripts.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) In vitro HaCaT cells exposed to 20 and 50 µg/mL ZnO-NPs for 24 h Deacetylation of histone H4 lysine 5 (H4K3)
Increased demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9)
Increased expression of G9a and GLP histone methyltransferase genes
Down-regulation of GCN5, P300, and CBP histone acetyltransferase genes
ZnO-NPs In vitro Human bladder cancer T24 cells exposed to 10 µg/mL ZnO-NPs for 48 h Decrease of global histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at the RUNX3 gene promoter [71]
Arsenic trioxide nanoparticles (As2O3-NPs) In vitro Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T or HeLa cells were exposed to As2O3-NPs at different concentrations (0.2 ~ 0.8 μM) for 24, 48, or 72 h Reduction of global histone 4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16ac)
Increase of deacetyltransferase HDAC4 expression
Nano-cobalt (Nano-Co) and TiO2 -NPs In vitro Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells A549, exposed to 5-15 µg/mL TiO2 -NPs and Nano-Co for 12 h Increased expression of Rad51, and phosphorylated p53 [52]
Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) In vitro Human breast cancer cells MCF-7 were exposed to 5 μg/ml CdTe-QDs for 4 or 24 h Global histone hypoacetylation [70]