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Table 3 Summary of the charge characteristics and in vitro and in vivo toxicity of the NPs investigated herein

From: Density of surface charge is a more predictive factor of the toxicity of cationic carbon nanoparticles than zeta potential

  NP1 NP2 NP3 NP4 NP5 NP6
Charge characteristics
ζ-potential (mV) − 38.5 ± 1.9 + 26.9 ± 1.6 + 21.0 ± 1.5 + 20.6 ± 1.2 + 23.9 ± 2.0 + 22.7 ± 0.1
Qek (µmol/mg) nd 0.23 0.78 1.35 4.39 2.95
In vitro toxicity in THP-1 cells
Viability loss ** ** *** ***
Oxidative stress * *
IL-8 *** ***
Mitochondrial perturbation ** **
Lysosome integrity * *** ***
In vivo toxicity in healthy mice
Total cells *** ***
Neutrophils *** ***
IL-6 *** *** ***
KC *** **
MCP-1 *** ***
In vivo toxicity in allergic mice
Total IgG1 nd *** nd
HMD-specific IgG1 nd *** nd
Total cells nd *** nd
Eosinophils nd *** nd
Eotaxin nd *** nd
  1. nd: not determined
  2. –: no significant effect
  3. *: significance of the biggest effect evoked by the NPs compared to control (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001)