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Table 1 Free amino acids analysis treated with CNPs in BY-2 cells

From: Carbon nanoparticles enhance potassium uptake via upregulating potassium channel expression and imitating biological ion channels in BY-2 cells

Retention timeAmino acidCtrl12345
μM/g
22.332l-Aspartic acid↑↓0.267 ± 0.026 c0.399 ± 0.076 c0.584 ± 0.020 b0.762 ± 0.220 a0.701 ± 0.136 a0.542 ± 0.150 b
25.499Hydroxy-l-proline2.240 ± 0.395 b1.904 ± 0.446 c2.646 ± 0.209 a1.450 ± 0.587 d2.559 ± 0.558 a1.787 ± 0.101 c
29.211l-Threonine↑↓0.869 ± 0.047 d1.075 ± 0.056 d1.334 ± 0.091 c1.750 ± 0.205 b1.993 ± 0.328 a1.412 ± 0.078 c
31.352l-Serine↑↓1.917 ± 0.034 d1.919 ± 0.242 d2.473 ± 0.163 c3.013 ± 0.235 a2.742 ± 0.714 b2.070 ± 0.266 e
36.416l-Asparagine1.204 ± 0.097 c1.313 ± 0.137 c1.830 ± 0.126 b2.125 ± 0.066 a1.897 ± 0.431 b1.917 ± 0.880 b
38.967l-Glutamic acid0.217 ± 0.070 c0.130 ± 0.042 d0.161 ± 0.024 d0.439 ± 0.242 b0.535 ± 0.040 a0.247 ± 0.129 c
41.108Glutamine1.076 ± 0.137 c0.983 ± 0.293 c1.373 ± 0.032 b1.757 ± 0.206 a1.174 ± 0.409 c1.746 ± 0.147 a
50.115l-Proline↑↓0.360 ± 0.054 e0.603 ± 0.56 d1.099 ± 0.115 c1.612 ± 0.195 a1.740 ± 0.341 a1.408 ± 0.268 b
51.567Glycine↑↓1.345 ± 0.183 c1.304 ± 0.217 c1.690 ± 0.208 b2.186 ± 0.213 a2.210 ± 0.416 a1.651 ± 0.070 b
53.265l-Alanine12.522 ± 1.002 a11.686 ± 1.326 b11.296 ± 0.313 b12.703 ± 0.721 a9.966 ± 1.176 c6.456 ± 0.258 d
60.425l-Valine2.128 ± 0.098 c2.280 ± 0.249 c2.850 ± 0.124 b3.494 ± 0.182a3.629 ± 0.661 a2.341 ± 0.313 c
68.309L-Methionine↑↓0.326 ± 0.075 e0.496 ± 0.050 e0.664 ± 0.021 d0.767 ± 0.048 b0.802 ± 0.206 a0.710 ± 0.192 c
70.909Cystathionine↑↓0.904 ± 0.056 f1.284 ± 0.050 e1.663 ± 0.114 d2.362 ± 0.364 b2.697 ± 0.513 a1.882 ± 0.085 c
72.709l-Isoleucine↑↓2.134 ± 0.083 e2.625 ± 0.096 d3.486 ± 0.214 b3.954 ± 0.236 a4.152 ± 0.862 a3.185 ± 0.345 c
73.825l-Leucine0.126 ± 0.076 a0.128 ± 0.049 a0.130 ± 0.022 a0.074 ± 0.012 c0.062 ± 0.014 c0.096 ± 0.003 b
77.824N-Leucine↑↓0.462 ± 0.057 e0.565 ± 0.009 d0.664 ± 0.065 c0.731 ± 0.031 b0.848 ± 0.145 a0.679 ± 0.137 c
79.939l-Tyrosine↓0.552 ± 0.165 a0.498 ± 0.168 b0.514 ± 0.045 b0.331 ± 0.007 c0.342 ± 0.110 c0.300 ± 0.111 c
82.163β-Alanine↑↓0.694 ± 0.047 e0.932 ± 0.070 d1.297 ± 0.101 c1.384 ± 0.094 b1.560 ± 0.221 a1.236 ± 0.246 c
92.164γ-Amino-n-butyric acid8.992 ± 0.111 d8.365 ± 1.015 e9.282 ± 0.472 c10.189 ± 0.539 b11.736 ± 0.282 a5.954 ± 0.238 f
104.221l-Lysine0.842 ± 0.049 e1.193 ± 0.170 d1.774 ± 0.193 b1.563 ± 0.850 c1.253 ± 0.136 d2.381 ± 0.208 a
106.9401-Methyl-l-histidine0.129 ± 0.023 c0.150 ± 0.046 b0.159 ± 0.025 b0.193 ± 0.034 a0.062 ± 0.008 d0.096 ± 0.057 d
108.484l-Histidine↑↓0.297 ± 0.020 e0.385 ± 0.038 d0.541 ± 0.028 c0.660 ± 0.036 b0.731 ± 0.121 a0.511 ± 0.007 c
112.1693-Methyl-l-histidine0.126 ± 0.011 d0.157 ± 0.038 c0.257 ± 0.023 b0.163 ± 0.011 c0.338 ± 0.062 a0.229 ± 0.014 b
117.503l-Carnosine0.144 ± 0.025 b0.189 ± 0.043 a0.145 ± 0.096 b0.133 ± 0.005 b0.152 ± 0.042 b0.103 ± 0.022 c
122.311l-Arginine↑↓0.737 ± 0.058 d1.082 ± 0.178 c1.545 ± 0.114 b1.693 ± 0.073 a1.794 ± 0.390 a1.539 ± 0.371 b
  1. 1:treated with 46.88 mM K+
  2. 2:treated with 46.88 mM K+  + 6.25 μg/mL CNPs
  3. 3:treated with 46.88 mM K+  + 31.25 μg/mL CNPs
  4. 4:treated with 46.88 mM K+  + 62.50 μg/mL CNPs
  5. 5:treated with46.88 mM K+  + 125.00 μg/mL CNPs
  6. ↑↓Arrows indicated the content of amino acid increased with the concentration of CNPs, and decreased at concentration of 125.00 μg/mL
  7. The letters “a–e” represent significant difference between groups