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Fig. 18 | Journal of Nanobiotechnology

Fig. 18

From: Antibacterial activity of iron oxide, iron nitride, and tobramycin conjugated nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

Fig. 18

Mechanisms of cell damage and response after exposure to iron-containing NPs. Iron ions, released from NPs, can cross the membrane via either active cellular uptake or leakage through sites with reduced membrane integrity. Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals resulting from Fe2+ reaction with hydrogen peroxide primarily cause oxidative damage. Fe3+ could be reduced by NADH and, thus, regenerating Fe2+. OH·radicals could also cause damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. Fe2+ may also directly damage DNA

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