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Table 1 Analytical performances of CSF-based biosensors

From: Advances in the development paradigm of biosample‐based biosensors for early ultrasensitive detection of alzheimer’s disease

Sensor type Target Analytical method Detection range Limit of detection Refs.
Femto- sensors Magnetic nitrogen-doped graphene (MNG) immobilized with Aβ antibody (MNG-Aβab) on Au electrode Aβ42 Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential potential voltammetry (DPV) 5000 fg/mL-
800 pg/mL
5000 fg/mL [132]
Ru(bpy)32+/Zinc oxalate metal-organic framework (MOF) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) 100 fg/mL–50 ng/mL 13.8 fg/mL [133]
Cellular prion protein (PrPc) with a layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) embedded AuNPs AβO EIS 0.1 fM–104 nM 0.1 fM [134]
Nano-
sensors
Raman dye-coated polyA aptamer-AuNPs (PAapt-AuNPs) Aβ42 and
Tau
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering
(SERS)
1 × 10− 1–1 × 104 nM 3.7 × 10− 2 nM
and
4.2 × 10− 4 pM
[135]
Anti-Tau modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with graphene oxide (GO) and amine functionalized trimethylolpropane tris poly(propylleneglycol) (pPG) Tau DPV and
EIS
0.5–15.1 nM 0.15 nM [136]
2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid-polydiallylmethylammonium chloride (ABTS-PDDA) bi-functionalized with SWCNTs loaded with neurokinin B Aβ42 DPV 1 ng-0.38 µg/mL 0.5 ng/mL [137]
AuNPs deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method Aβ42 Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) - 0.001 ng/mL [138]
Au disc coated with polypyrrol-2-COOH film immobilized NH2-terminated PrPc AβO EIS 10− 7–0 nM 10− 7 nM [139]
Graphene oxide-based platform immobilized with AβO antibody AβO Fluorescence 10 nM–2 µM 1 nM [140]
Micro-sensors Tau protein-based Au disk electrode Tau441 CV and
EIS
0.1–1.0 µM 0.2 µM [141]
AD7c-NTP antibodies immobilized sandwich immunoassay AD7c-NTP ELISA - 0.0092 µg/mL [142]
96 well microtiter plates coated with monoclonal antibody (N3I4) AD7c-NPT ELISA 3 × 10− 5-5 × 10− 5 µg/mL 0.002 µg/mL [143]
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based enzyme-modified field-effect transistor (RGO-EnFET) Acetylcholine (ACh) Electrical conductance measurement 1 µM–10 mM 1 µM [144]
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