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Table 2 Analytical performances of blood-based biosensors

From: Advances in the development paradigm of biosample‐based biosensors for early ultrasensitive detection of alzheimer’s disease

Sensor type Target Analytical method Detection range Limit of detection Refs.
Femto- sensors Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) and AuNWs modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) microRNA137 Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) 5.0–750.0 fM 1.7 fM [33]
  Densely aligned CNTs on Si wafer t-Tau
Electrochemical resistance measurement 10–106 fM 2.45 fM
2.72 fM
2.2 fM
2.13 fM
  Antibody immobilized 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and thiol modified polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH) on AuNPs screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) Aβ42 Deferential potential voltammetry (DPV) 100 fM–25 pM 100 fM [147]
  Hybrid graphene coated with HS-PEG modified by antibody
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
100 fg/mL [148]
  Interdigitated microelectrode (IME) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel with Ti sputtered over Pt electrode on Si-wafer EIS 1 ng/mL − 100 fg/mL 100 fg/mL [149]
  Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide-chitosan (RGO-CS) modified with AuNPs t-Tau441 DPV 0.5–80 fM 0.46 fM [150]
  Iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) conjugated Mo-doped BiVO4 modified by tau antibody Tau EIS 1.59 fM [151]
  Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and AuNP
bilayer electrode
ADAM10 CV 5.6-1388.9 fg/mL 0.35 fg/mL [152]
  DNAaptamer/antibody sandwich assay Tau381 Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) 2–80 pM 10 fM [153]
  Gold-nanochip with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) monolayer coupled with tau antibody and antiAAT Tau381 SPR ~ 39 fM [154]
  Ceria doped ZnO NFs-based sensor ECL 80 fg/mL–100 ng/mL 52 fg/mL [155]
  Aptamer-antibody sandwich assay with cysteamine-stabilized AuNPs Tau381 DPV 500 − 104 fM 420 fM [156]
  Anti-tau functionalized hybrid magnetic NPs (MNP) with AuNPs Tau SERS 25 fM–500 nM 5 fM [157]
  A shape code type AuNPs immobilized with antibody Aβ40, Aβ42, and tau protein localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) 1 × 101 – 1 × 108 fM 34.9 fM, 26 fM, and 23.6 fM [158]
  AuNPs-based biochip conjugated with Aβantibody Aβ42 SPR 1 µg/mL–10 fg/mL 10 fg/mL [159]
  Four-electrode electrochemical biosensor with antibody-antigen complexes on Au electrode coated with protein G 2N4R tau protein CV and EIS 10− 4–10 nM 30 fM [160]
  Indium tin oxide (ITO) coated by 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and glutaraldehyde (GA) conjugated with AuNPs ApoE SPR 1.0 pg/mL-10 ng/mL 420 fg/mL [161]
  Ion concentration polarization-interdigitated microelectrode (ICP-IME)-based microfluidic chip Aβ-peptide Impedance measurement 1 ng/mL-1 pg/mL 8.15 fM [162]
  A nanoplasmonic biosensor of Au nanorods with chaotic agent for the ultrasensitive detection of AD biomarkers   Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) 102–108 fM 10 fM [163]
  Photolithographically patterned electrodes with amino groups for reduced graphene oxide-based field effect transistor (RGO-FET) EIS 1 fM-100 pM 1 fM [164]
Nano-sensors Disposable label-free screen printed chip with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and AuNPs Aβ42 EIS 2.04 µM-2.65 nM 0.57 nM [11]
CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) labeled on polydimethylsiloxane-polycarbonate (PDMS-PC) microfluidic chip with integrated screen printed electrode (SPE) ApoE Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) 10–200 ng/mL 12.5 ng/mL [165]
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) integrated onto hydroxyapatite (HAP) probe with molybdate as signal amplifier BACE1 CV and Square wave voltammograms (SWVs) 5-150 nM 10 nM [166]
Micro- sensors Streptavidin interface probe sensor Tau441 Optical Biotinylated interferometry (BLI) 2–55 nM 6.7 nM [167]
Fern leaves-like gold nanostructure, modified into RNA aptamer sensor DPV 0.002–1.28 ng/mL 0.4 pg/mL [168]
AuNPs coated with N-and C-terminal of dual antibody AuNPs@C/N-Ab(1–42) Aβ42 Colorimetry 7.5–350 nM 2.3 nM [169]
Gold-nanochip with monolayer of 11- mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) coupled with antiAAT for the detection of Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) SPR ~ 10–200 nM ~ 65 µM [154]
Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and thiol group over Au sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film with Aβab Aβ42 DPV 0.0675-0.5 µg/mL - [170]
Label-free antibody modified Au electrode Aβ1–16 Total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) 0.5 × 10− 4 g/mL-5 µg/mL 0.5 × 10− 4 µg/mL [171]
Anti-tau antibodies coated on polycrystalline Au surface Tau441 CV and EIS 1-100 µg/mL 10 µg/mL [172]