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Table 3 Selected relevant pre-clinical studies based on recent LNPs for the diagnosis and treatment of AD

From: Nanomedicine-based technologies and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: from current to future challenges

Loaded molecule Lipid matrix Surface modifications Dose Admin. route In vitro/In vivo model Results Refs
PE Lecithin
Stearic acid
Cholesterol
50 mg/kg v.o AlCl 3-induced Wistar rats PE shows a protective effect in the AD animal model
NPs improve the PE effectiveness in novel object recognition test, increase of biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation reduction, and neurofibrillary tangles and the senile plaques reduction
Almuhayawi et al. [57]
α-bisabolol Cholesterol 5–10 μg/ml incubation Aβ25–35 Neuro-2a cells NPs significantly suppress the production of free radicals, reduce β-secretase, caspase-3, cholinesterase activities and expression of Bax, and induce expression of Bcl-2 proteins Sathya et al. [164]
Quercetin Cetyl palmitate miglyol-812 Transferrin 10–30 µM Incubation hCMEC/D3 cells Quercetin-NPs are not toxic for hCMEC/D3 cells and permeate more the BBB than free drug. Moreover, NPs inhibit fibril formation of Aβ peptide Pinheiro et al. [161]
EPO GMS 1250–2500 IU/Kg i.p Aβ42-induced Wistar rats EPO-NPs significantly restore memory in treated rats compared to those treated with free EPO
EPO-NPs reduce the oxidative stress, ADP/ATP ratio, and Aβ plaque deposition in the hippocampus more effectively than the free EPO
Dara et al. [165]
Curcumin Caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate PCL 1–10 mg/kg i.c.v Aβ42-induced Swiss Albino mice Curcumin-NPs display significant neuroprotection against Aβ42-induced behavioral and neurochemical changes in the AD-induced mice model Giacomedi et al. [158]
α-bisabolol Cholesterol 5–10 μg/ml Incubation Aβ25–35 Neuro-2a cells α-bisabolol-NPs protect the Neuro-2a cells from Aβ induced neurotoxicity and inhibited Aβ aggregation Sathya et al. [163]
  1. EPO, Erythropoietin; GMS, Glycerin monostearate; hCMEC/D3 cells, Immortalized human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells; PCL, poly(ɛ-caprolactone); PE, pomegranate extract