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Table 5 Selected relevant pre-clinical studies based on recent MNPs for the diagnosis and treatment of AD

From: Nanomedicine-based technologies and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: from current to future challenges

Loaded molecule Metal core Surface modifications Dose Admin. route In vitro/in vivo Model Results Refs
Iron oxide NIR Fluorescent probe 10 ng/mL Incubation Aβ42 induced
SH-SY5Y cells
MNPs can simultaneously perform in vivo NIR fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain of transgenic mice, prevent Aβ aggregation, disaggregate preformed Aβ fibrils and play a protective effect on the toxicity of human neuroblastoma cells induced by Aβ42 Cai et al. [201]
0.2 mmol Fe/kg i.v APP/PS1 mice
Iron oxide chitosan NA Exposition Synthetic urine MNPs were used to fabricate a highly sensitive AChE electrochemical biosensor. The novel biosensor exhibits the lower limit of detection of ACh that has been reported in the literature. It also shows good recoveries in the determination of ACh in synthetic urine da Silva et al. [192]
Selenium Chondroitin sulfate 1.45 µg/mL Incubation SH-SY5Y cells MNPs inhibit Aβ aggregation, protect SH-SY5Y cells from Aβ42-induced cytotoxicity, decrease okadaic acid-induced actin cytoskeleton instability, In addition, decrease the levels of ROS and MDA, increase the levels of GSH-Px, and attenuate the hyperphosphorylation of tau by regulating the expression of GSK-3b Gao et al. [195]
Cerium dioxide Zirconium 4 mg/m3 for 3–5 h/day i.n 5xFAD mice
ApoE-/- mice
The inhalation exposure to the MNPs promotes changes in forced motor performance and exploratory motor activity in ApoE-/- and 5xFAD mice, respectively Wahle et al. 2020
Quercetin Gold / Palladium Polysorbate 80 5–40 µg/mL Incubation SH-SY5Y cells MNPs activate autophagy of SH-SY5Y cells, promote the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, accelerate the clearance of Aβ, and protect SH-SY5Y cells from Aβ -induced cytotoxicity damage. MNPs are not toxic both in vitro and in vivo Liu et al. [194]
1 mg/kg i.v Nude mice
Iron oxide
Cadmium sulfide
F. oxysporum and Verticillium sp. proteins 5 − 100 μg/mL incubation Neuro2a cells MNPs do not affect the viability of neuroblastoma cells and show dual properties of inhibition and disaggregation of Tau fibrillar aggregates Sonawane et al. [198]
Palladium Bioactive Hydrogen 6.25–25 µg/ml incubation N2a-SW cells Developed MNPs are able to recover mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibit Aβ generation and aggregation, block synaptic and neuronal apoptosis and promote neuronal energy metabolism by eliminating oxidative stress and activating the anti-oxidative pathway, consequently ameliorating the cognitive impairment in AD mice Zhang et al. [200]
2µL of MNPs (0.5–2 mg/ml) Stereotaxic injection APP/PS1 mice
Silver PrP95-110 1.2 nM Incubation Aβ enriched CSF and serum Authors report an electrochemical method for the detection of Aβ oligomer with a peptide as the bio-receptor and silver MNPs aggregates as the redox reporters Xing et al. [193]
CQ Gold 0.5 mg/mL Incubation PC12 cells In this system, CQ is released only upon exposure to conditions in which H2O2 levels are high, such as those in Aβ plaques. NPs inhibit Aβ40 aggregation, and reduce the cell membrane disruption, microtubular defects and ROS-mediated apoptosis Yang et al. [199]
5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.v ICR mice
  1. Ach, acetylcholine; CQ, metal chelator Clioquinol; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; GSH-Px, glutathione peroxidase; MDA, malondialdehyde; NIR, phenothiazine-based near-infrared fluorescent dye; PrP95-110, cellular prion protein; ROS, reactive oxygen species; STZ, streptozotocin