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Table 2 The colloidal behaviour of TiO2, ZnO, Ag, BaSO4 and CeO2 ENMs once exposed to DMEM complete media for 24 and 120 h.

From: Understanding the impact of more realistic low-dose, prolonged engineered nanomaterial exposure on genotoxicity using 3D models of the human liver

ENM sample ENM concentration (µg/mL) Exposure time (h) pH Size DLS (nm) PDI Zeta Pot. (mV)
Mean Stdev   Mean Stdev
TiO2
NM 105
0.2 24 7.6 23 1 0.6 − 8.8 0.6
0.5 24 7.7 108 64 0.3 − 10.2 0.6
1 24 7.6 112 49 0.4 − 9.9 0.4
2 24 7.7 226 46 0.3 − 8.0 0.4
5 24 7.7 216 24 0.7 − 10.3 0.8
10 24 7.6 282 22 0.6 − 9.8 0.6
0.2 120 7.8 37 2 0.6 − 5.9 0.5
0.5 120 7.8 97 21 0.3 − 10.0 0.8
1 120 7.9 71 2 1.0 − 10.2 0.3
2 120 7.9 232 24 0.5 − 13.1 0.9
5 120 8.4 152 10 0.5 − 12.6 1.1
10 120 8.0 275 10 0.4 − 10.1 0.7
ZnO
NM 111
0.2 24 7.6 21 3 0.4 − 7.8 0.9
0.5 24 7.7 25 3 0.6 − 6.7 1.6
1 24 7.7 22 4 0.4 − 4.3 0.8
2 24 7.7 20 1 0.4 − 7.7 0.5
5 24 7.7 50 12 0.4 − 4.4 0.9
10 24 7.7 74 43 0.2 − 8.3 0.8
0.2 120 7.8 30 1 0.5 − 7.5 0.8
0.5 120 7.8 28 1 0.8 − 5.8 1.2
1 120 7.8 28 4 0.6 − 6.9 0.6
2 120 7.8 40 3 0.6 − 6.8 1.8
5 120 7.8 63 6 0.6 − 5.1 0.9
10 120 7.9 36 1 0.5 − 9.2 0.5
Ag
Sigma 576832
0.2 24 7.8 26 1 0.7 − 7.9 1.3
0.5 24 7.8 43 13 0.4 − 9.5 0.7
1 24 7.8 138 11 0.2 − 10.9 1.6
2 24 7.8 244 166 0.3 − 10.0 0.8
5 24 7.8 273 186 0.4 − 10.4 1.3
10 24 7.8 308 36 0.3 − 11.3 0.8
0.2 120 8.1 79 2 0.4 − 11.1 1.6
0.5 120 8.0 73 2 0.4 − 11.2 0.3
1 120 7.9 117 3 0.6 − 7.7 0.8
2 120 8.1 89 3 0.4 − 10.8 0.9
5 120 7.9 109 16 0.4 − 9.3 0.8
10 120 7.9 150 16 0.3 − 7.5 0.7
BaSO4
NM 220
0.2 24 7.6 20 1 0.4 − 8.6 0.5
0.5 24 7.6 27 2 0.7 − 9.5 0.8
1 24 7.6 21 1 0.5 − 8.1 0.9
2 24 7.6 21 1 0.6 − 9.6 0.9
5 24 7.7 32 1 0.8 − 9.6 0.2
10 24 7.7 41 3 1.0 − 11.6 0.8
0.2 120 7.8 51 1 0.6 − 4.1 0.9
0.5 120 7.8 54 2 0.6 − 7.7 0.4
1 120 7.8 59 1 0.6 − 8.1 0.7
2 120 7.8 66 2 0.6 − 4.6 1.3
5 120 7.8 80 1 0.6 − 8.3 1.0
10 120 7.8 95 1 0.6 − 10.0 0.8
CeO2
NM 212
0.2 24 7.6 21 2 0.5 − 6.5 0.4
0.5 24 7.6 24 1 0.7 − 7.4 0.8
1 24 7.7 109 53 0.4 − 6.6 0.2
2 24 7.7 351 218 0.4 − 10.2 0.6
5 24 7.7 598 446 0.8 − 8.1 0.9
10 24 7.7 392 116 0.5 − 10.7 1.0
0.2 120 8.2 76 1 0.4 − 7.0 1.3
0.5 120 7.9 56 3 0.6 − 7.3 0.4
1 120 7.8 98 4 0.8 − 4.5 0.5
2 120 7.8 90 42 0.7 − 6.7 0.3
5 120 7.9 114 1 0.6 − 9.4 0.7
10 120 7.9 194 29 0.4 − 9.1 0.6