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Table 5 Concentration of albumin and urea produced per HepG2 spheroid following a prolonged (120 h) exposure using a single, bolus dosing regime or a fractionated, repeated dosing regime with 0.5 and 5.0 µg/mL of TiO2 and ZnO ENMs

From: Understanding the impact of more realistic low-dose, prolonged engineered nanomaterial exposure on genotoxicity using 3D models of the human liver

3D HepG2 liver spheroid liver functionality Albumin per spheroid (ng/µL) (95% CI) Urea per spheroid (ng/µL) (95% CI)
Dosing regime employed Bolus Fractionated Bolus Fractionated
Untreated negative control 32.807 (29.323–36.291) 0.805 (0.729–0.880)
TiO2
0.5 µg/mL
37.736 (29.973–45.499) 33.716 (30.426–37.007) 0.885 (0.722–1.048) 0.806 (0.616–0.995)
TiO2
5.0 µg/mL
32.740 (29.457–36.022) 31.289 (25.383–37.195) 0.818 (0.757–0.878) 0.815 (0.772–0.858)
ZnO
0.5 µg/mL
42.960 (30.320–55.601) 32.948 (28.644–37.252) 0.790 (0.585–0.996) 0.819 (0.781–0.858)
ZnO
5.0 µg/mL
33.971 (31.280–36.662) 36.665 (33.365–39.965) 0.854 (0.775–0.932) 0.666 (0.492–0.840)
Aflatoxin B1 positive control 35.969 (25.594–46.344) 36.978 (30.590–43.366) 0.769 (0.707–0.885) 0.792 (0.758–0.826)
  1. Mean data of three biological replicates, analysed in triplicate (n = 9) are presented with 95% confidence intervals. Significance is indicated in relation to the negative control, where * = p ≤ 0.05