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Table 2 Comparison between QC and conventional iron chelators

From: Quercetin attenuates neurotoxicity induced by iron oxide nanoparticles

Iron chelating agents Quercetin (QC) Deferoxamine (DFO) Deferasirox (DFX) Deferiprone (DFP)
Type (source) Natural (flavonoid) [176] Natural (siderophore) [176] Synthetic [176] Synthetic [176]
Molecular weight 302.236 g/mol (see Foot note link 13) 500–900 g/mol [273] 373 g/mol [267] 139 g/mol [267]
Half-life 11–28 h [176] 20–30 min [270] 8–16 h [270] 2–3 h [270]
Routes of excretion Urinary [172], fecal [171] Urinary, fecal [270] [299] Fecal [279] Urinary [270]
Structure
Recommended dose 500–1000 mg/day for short time (web ref, 14)
500 mg twice daily for 12 weeks (see Foot note link 15)
20–60 mg/kg/day
over 8–24 h [271]
20–40 mg/kg/day
once daily [271]
75–100 mg/kg/day
in three divided doses [271]
Administration Oral and intravenously (see Foot note link 15). powder and capsule (see Foot note link 14) Subcutaneous and intravenous [267] Oral [279](dispersible tablet) [271] Oral [92]tablets and solution [271]
Stoichiometry (chelator:iron) 1:1
2:1
3:1 [18, 189]
1:1 [292] 2:1 [292] 3:1 [292]
Adverse effects Generally safe. at doses, more than 1000 mg/day may cause headaches, stomach aches, and tingling sensations (see Foot note link 14) Neurological side effects at high doses [271], ocular and auditory toxicity, renal complications, growth retardation [276, 277], local allergic reactions [278] Skin rash, gastrointestinal complications, [283], enhancing liver enzymes [271] Gastrointestinal complications, musculoskeletal pain, neutropenia [284], and enhancing liver enzymes [271]
Advantages No side effects in desirable doses and duration of medication (web ref, 14 and 15), supplied by natural sources, and longer plasma half-life than current chelators (e.g. DFO, DFX, and DFP) Long-term experience and data available [299] Orally active, once-daily dosing [299] and long-plasma half-life [270] Orally active [92], low molecular weight, and high ability to penetrate tissues
Disadvantages Requires high dose and low BBB crossing Not absorption from the gastrointestinal tract [270], rapidly clearance and requires to prolong infusion [300], and poor compliance [184] Expensive [299] and requires monitoring renal and liver function [272] Moderate-plasma half-life [270], requires three times daily dosing and probability of negative effects [271], limited experience and data (see foot not link 16), and requires assessment of complete blood counts [270]
FDA approval No Yes [278] Yes [278] Yes, except the United States and Canada [270]