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Table 2 Synthesis of HM-CDs

From: Herbal medicine derived carbon dots: synthesis and applications in therapeutics, bioimaging and sensing

Sources Synthetic methods Reaction temperature (℃/W) Reaction time QY (%) Average particle size (nm) Particle size distribution (nm) Refs
Pinellia Ternata Hydrothermal 180 9 h 21.30 5.2 5.0–6.0 [151]
Osmanthus fragrans Hydrothermal 180 10 h 21.90 3.1 2.0–6.0 [152]
Osmanthus fragrans Hydrothermal 240 5 h 18.53 2.23 1.0–3.5 [150]
Mustard seeds Hydrothermal 180 4 h 4.60 4.58 ± 0.26 2.0–8.0 [157]
Lemon juice Hydrothermal 120 3 h 16.70 3.1 2.0–4.5 [155]
Ginkgo fruits Hydrothermal 160/180/200 8/12/16 h 3.33 3.81 2.0–6.0 [81]
Ginkgo leaf Hydrothermal 200 10 h 22.80 3 2.0–4.0 [85]
Papaya Hydrothermal 200 5 h 18.98 3.4 2.0–6.0 [78]
Purple perilla Hydrothermal 260 5 h 9.01 2.8 [142]
Orange peel Hydrothermal 200 4 h 18.57 2.34 [84]
Orange peel Hydrothermal 200 6 h 11.37 2.9 ± 0.5 [83]
Bamboo leaves Hydrothermal 200 6 h 7.10 3.6 3.4–4.2 [80]
Panax notoginseng Hydrothermal 180 12 h 8.54 7.8 7.2–8.4 [38]
Panax notoginseng Hydrothermal 180 12 h 18.41 6.66 5.58–7.75 [38]
Giant Knotweed Rhizome Hydrothermal 200 3 h 11.50 35 [87]
Jujubes Hydrothermal 190 6 h 3.12 [149]
Honey Hydrothermal 100 2 h Mainly 2 nm [43]
Lycii Fructus Hydrothermal 180 5 h 17.20 3.3 2.0–5.0 [148]
Ginger Hydrothermal 300 2 h 13.40 4.3 ± 0.8 [28]
Yams Hydrothermal 200 2 h 1.5–4.0 [79]
Gardenia fruit Hydrothermal 180 5 h 10.70 2.08 1.2–3.5 [88]
Coix seed Hydrothermal 180 3 h 17.43 2.4 ± 0.2 2.1–2.7 [82]
Smilax China Hydrothermal 200 5 h 22.37 2.10 ± 0.29 0.5–3.0 [147]
Puerariae lobatae Radix High-temperature pyrolysis 300 1 h 3.20 3.0–10.0 [118]
Schizonepetae Spica High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 6.31 1.29–6.87 [98]
Schizonepetae Spica High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 2.26 0.8–4.0 [97]
Aurantii fructus immaturus High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 7.20 1.1–4.4 [117]
Lychee seeds High-temperature pyrolysis 300 2 h 10.60 1.12 0.4–2.0 [96]
Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 2.84 ± 0.89 [127]
Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 9.62 1.2–4.8 [110]
Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex High-temperature pyrolysis 400 1 h 5.63 1.93 ± 0.53 0.5–3.6 [162]
Radix Sophorae Flavescentis High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 1.08 Mainly 2.0–3.0 [115]
Lonicerae japonicae Flos High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 0.50 1.0–10.0 [116]
Watermelon peel High-temperature pyrolysis 220 2 h 7.10 2.0 ± 0.5 [33]
Artemisiae Argyi Folium High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 0.19 6.0–10.0 [134]
Pollen Typhae High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 4.2 ± 1.4 2.0–8.0 [109]
Junci Medulla High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 0.12 1.0–8.0 [163]
Zingiberis rhizoma High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 5.20 3.00 ± 0.77 2.23–3.77 [135]
Fennel Seeds High-temperature pyrolysis 500 3 h 9.50 3.90 ± 0.91 [94]
Egg yolk oil High-temperature pyrolysis 260 1 h 5.01 Mainly less than 10 nm [44]
Paeoniae Radix Alba High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 5.34 1.0–2.4 [126]
Jiaosanxian High-temperature pyrolysis 7.95 4.4–6.4 [132]
Mulberry silkworm cocoon High-temperature pyrolysis 350 1 h 6.32 2.26–9.35 [45]
Gynostemma High-temperature pyrolysis 400 4 h 5.7 2.49 ± 0.43 [161]
Hair High-temperature pyrolysis/microwave 300/400 2 h/4 min 86.06 3.57 2.0–6.0 [42]
Rose flowers Microwave 4.0–6.0 [153]
Ginkgo fruits Microwave 800 5/10/15 min 0.65 2.82 2.0–4.0 [81]
Orange peel Microwave 900 1 min 16.20 4.2 3.0–5.0 [103]
Papaya Solvothermal 200 5 h 18.39 10.8 8.0–18.0 [78]