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Table 3 HM-CDs as sensors

From: Herbal medicine derived carbon dots: synthesis and applications in therapeutics, bioimaging and sensing

Herbal medicine Iron/molecule Sensing mechanisms Refs
Jujubes Fe3+ Electron transfer [149]
Honey Fe3+ Electron transfer [43]
Lycii Fructus Fe3+ IFE/electron transfer/energy transfer [148]
Pinellia Ternata Cr6+ Synergistic effect of IFE and electron transfer [151]
Osmanthus fragrans Al3+/quercetin IFE and static quenching effect [152]
Osmanthus fragrans Fe3+ IFE [150]
Mustard seeds Ascorbic acid Electron transfer [157]
Ginkgo leaf Salazosulfapyridine IFE [85]
Papaya Fe3+/Escherichia coli Electron transfer/FimH proteins interact with mannose [78]
Purple perilla Ag+ Electron transfer [142]
Orange peel Cr6+ IFE [84]
Orange peel Escherichia coli Aptamer to E. coli cells [103]
Lychee seeds Methylene blue Electron transfer [96]
Rose flower Tetracycline Energy transfer [153]
Giant Knotweed Rhizome Hg2+ Energy transfer [87]
Bamboo leaves Cu2+ IFE [80]
Panax notoginseng Cr6+ IFE [38]
Hair Fe3+/ATP/NAPDH Synergistic action of the metabolism process by the digestive system and quenching effect of internal metabolite and substance [42]
Yams Hg2+/6-mercaptopurine FRET/decreased conjugation [79]
Gardenia fruit Hg2+/cysteine Static quenching [88]
Coix seed Furazolidone Static quenching/IFE [82]
Smilax China Cu2+ Static quenching [147]
  1. IFE: inner filter effect; FRET: fluorescence resonance energy transfer