Skip to main content

Table 2 Biological functions of different MPs

From: Microparticles: biogenesis, characteristics and intervention therapy for cancers in preclinical and clinical research

Original cells


Biological function


Ordinary tumor cells


Mediating M2 polarization of TAMs and promoting tumor growth and metastasis



Loading PD-L1 and inhibiting activation of CD8+ T cells



Facilitating the generation of type I IFN in DCs and promoting their activation through cGAS/STING signaling



Up-regulating expression of CCL2 in IECs to attract and activate DCs for tumor inhibition



Augmenting biogenesis and centripetal movement of lysosomes in tumor cells



X ray

Causing ferroptosis in tumor cells and mediating M1 polarization of TAMs



Activating stromal cells to secrete pro-angiopoietic factors



Inhibiting antitumor immunity with the carried PD-L1

[67, 68]



Mediating M2 polarization of TAMs



Up-regulating expression of CCL2 in lung macrophages and promoting lung metastasis



Activating fibroblasts and endothelial cells to express pro-angiopoietic factors



Inhibiting the functions of NK cells by transferring miR-23a



Promoting focal adhesion formation, tumor invasion and metastasis



No treatment

Inhibiting the activation of B cells and promoting the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes



Promoting antiapoptotic effect on monocytes by transferring CCR6 and CD44v7/8



Promoting the differentiation of myeloid cells and enhancing their function on inhibiting T cells activation



Inducing lymphocyte apoptosis by the carried FasL



Promoting Treg differentiation and enhancing their negative regulation of immunity



Promoting differentiation of monocytes to macrophages



Up-regulating VEGF expression in endothelial cells by the carried epidermal growth factor receptor



Inducing IL-10 production in monocytes by the carried hyaluronan



Modulating antigen cross-processing in DCs through the packaged ROS



Inducing premetastatic cell clusters and promoting liver metastasis by the carried CD36



Converting normal fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) by the carried miR-155



Up-regulating expression of transforming growth factor β in macrophages by the carried phosphatidylserine




Converting normal fibroblasts into CAFs by phosphorylating ERK1/2 and down-regulating caveolin1



Up-regulating activity of focal adhesion kinase in epithelial cells and then reorganizing extracellular matrix



Apoptogenic reagents

Activating fibroblasts through phosphorylating ERK1/2 and up-regulating MMP9


Chemo-resistant tumor cells

No treatment

Transferring resistance proteins to drug-sensitive tumor cells



Down-regulating miR-503 and up-regulating proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 of tumor cells to promote tumor migration and invasion



Increasing the release of IL-6, TNF-α and INF-γ in macrophages


Stem-cell-like cancer cells

No treatment

Converting normal endothelial cells into an activated angiogenic phenotype and promoting the formation lung premetastatic niche



Transferring tissue factor and accelerating plasma coagulation


Endothelial cells


Activating angiogenesis in recipient cells by transferring mRNA



Promoting anti-inflammatory effects by transferring miR-222 and reducing ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells




Up-regulating the expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells



Converting endothelial cells into an anti-atherogenic phenotype by transferring miR-126, miR-21 and miR-155



Inducing plasmacytoid DCs maturation and production of inflammatory cytokines

Promoting proliferation and production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD4+ T cells



Increasing monocyte adhesion by up-regulating the expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells

Mediating apoptosis and inflammation of endothelial cells



No treatment

Promoting generation of stem-cell-like cancer cells and resistance to hormonal therapy by transferring miR-221



No treatment

Inducing angiogenesis through VEGF, heparanase, and platelet derived growth factor



Stimulating proliferation and invasion of tumor cells by transferring integrin CD41



Inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition in tumor cells by transferring miR-939



Mediating mitochondrial dysfunction and growth inhibition in tumor cells by transferring miR-24



Promoting angiogenesis, tissue regeneration and cancer metastasis




Increasing the production of lipoxin A4 in mast cells by transferring ipoxygenase 12




Increasing the expression of IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α in macrophages

Up-regulating the production of IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6 in endothelial cells




Incapable of inducing plasmacytoid DCs maturation



Hypotonic solutions

Falsely “mark” nucleated cells as apoptotic by transferring phosphatidylserine




P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 on the MPs interacted with P-selectin on the platelets and activated platelets to initiate coagulation



Promoting pro-inflammatory and procoagulant properties of endothelial cells by transferring transcripts of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8



No treatment

Promoting angiogenesis by transferring miR-150 to endothelial cells




Inducing expression of ICAM-1 and release of keratinocyte-derived cytokine by transferring TNF-α



Lm infection

Transferring antigens of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) to DCs for antigen presentation


T lymphocytes

Inducers of apoptosis

Inducing apoptosis and stimulating release of MPs in macrophages




Converting fibroblasts into osteoclasts by up-regulating IL-15, MMP9 and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand in odontogenic keratocysts




Incapable of inducing plasmacytoid DCs maturation




Incapable of mediating M2 polarization of TAMs



No treatment

Inhibiting growth and migration of retinal endothelial cells in vitro, and decreasing VEGF-induced retinal vascular leakage in vivo


Splenic cells


Increasing tumor metastasis by transferring integrin α(M)β2


Yeast cells

NaOH and heat

Activating DCs through Dectin-1/Syk pathway and TLR2/MyD88 pathway