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Table 2 Biological functions of different MPs

From: Microparticles: biogenesis, characteristics and intervention therapy for cancers in preclinical and clinical research

Original cells Stress Biological function Refs.
Ordinary tumor cells UV Mediating M2 polarization of TAMs and promoting tumor growth and metastasis [163]
   Loading PD-L1 and inhibiting activation of CD8+ T cells [68]
   Facilitating the generation of type I IFN in DCs and promoting their activation through cGAS/STING signaling [71]
   Up-regulating expression of CCL2 in IECs to attract and activate DCs for tumor inhibition [59]
   Augmenting biogenesis and centripetal movement of lysosomes in tumor cells [77]
  X ray Causing ferroptosis in tumor cells and mediating M1 polarization of TAMs [58]
   Activating stromal cells to secrete pro-angiopoietic factors [66]
   Inhibiting antitumor immunity with the carried PD-L1 [67, 68]
  Hypoxia Mediating M2 polarization of TAMs [163]
   Up-regulating expression of CCL2 in lung macrophages and promoting lung metastasis [164]
   Activating fibroblasts and endothelial cells to express pro-angiopoietic factors [66]
   Inhibiting the functions of NK cells by transferring miR-23a [165]
   Promoting focal adhesion formation, tumor invasion and metastasis [35]
  No treatment Inhibiting the activation of B cells and promoting the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes [166]
   Promoting antiapoptotic effect on monocytes by transferring CCR6 and CD44v7/8 [167]
   Promoting the differentiation of myeloid cells and enhancing their function on inhibiting T cells activation [168]
   Inducing lymphocyte apoptosis by the carried FasL [169]
   Promoting Treg differentiation and enhancing their negative regulation of immunity [170]
   Promoting differentiation of monocytes to macrophages [171]
   Up-regulating VEGF expression in endothelial cells by the carried epidermal growth factor receptor [172]
   Inducing IL-10 production in monocytes by the carried hyaluronan [173]
   Modulating antigen cross-processing in DCs through the packaged ROS [174]
   Inducing premetastatic cell clusters and promoting liver metastasis by the carried CD36 [175]
   Converting normal fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) by the carried miR-155 [176]
   Up-regulating expression of transforming growth factor β in macrophages by the carried phosphatidylserine [177]
  Starvation Converting normal fibroblasts into CAFs by phosphorylating ERK1/2 and down-regulating caveolin1 [178]
   Up-regulating activity of focal adhesion kinase in epithelial cells and then reorganizing extracellular matrix [179]
  Apoptogenic reagents Activating fibroblasts through phosphorylating ERK1/2 and up-regulating MMP9 [180]
Chemo-resistant tumor cells No treatment Transferring resistance proteins to drug-sensitive tumor cells [181,182,183]
   Down-regulating miR-503 and up-regulating proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 of tumor cells to promote tumor migration and invasion [184]
   Increasing the release of IL-6, TNF-α and INF-γ in macrophages [185]
Stem-cell-like cancer cells No treatment Converting normal endothelial cells into an activated angiogenic phenotype and promoting the formation lung premetastatic niche [186]
   Transferring tissue factor and accelerating plasma coagulation [187]
Endothelial cells Starvation Activating angiogenesis in recipient cells by transferring mRNA [188]
   Promoting anti-inflammatory effects by transferring miR-222 and reducing ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells [189]
  TNF-α Up-regulating the expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells [190]
   Converting endothelial cells into an anti-atherogenic phenotype by transferring miR-126, miR-21 and miR-155 [191]
   Inducing plasmacytoid DCs maturation and production of inflammatory cytokines
Promoting proliferation and production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD4+ T cells
   Increasing monocyte adhesion by up-regulating the expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells
Mediating apoptosis and inflammation of endothelial cells
CAFs No treatment Promoting generation of stem-cell-like cancer cells and resistance to hormonal therapy by transferring miR-221 [193]
Platelets No treatment Inducing angiogenesis through VEGF, heparanase, and platelet derived growth factor [194]
   Stimulating proliferation and invasion of tumor cells by transferring integrin CD41 [195]
   Inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition in tumor cells by transferring miR-939 [60]
   Mediating mitochondrial dysfunction and growth inhibition in tumor cells by transferring miR-24 [196]
   Promoting angiogenesis, tissue regeneration and cancer metastasis [61]
  ADP Increasing the production of lipoxin A4 in mast cells by transferring ipoxygenase 12 [197]
  High-shear Increasing the expression of IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α in macrophages
Up-regulating the production of IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6 in endothelial cells
  TNF-α Incapable of inducing plasmacytoid DCs maturation [192]
Erythrocytes Hypotonic solutions Falsely “mark” nucleated cells as apoptotic by transferring phosphatidylserine [42]
Monocytes LPS P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 on the MPs interacted with P-selectin on the platelets and activated platelets to initiate coagulation [199]
   Promoting pro-inflammatory and procoagulant properties of endothelial cells by transferring transcripts of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 [200]
  No treatment Promoting angiogenesis by transferring miR-150 to endothelial cells [201]
Macrophages LPS Inducing expression of ICAM-1 and release of keratinocyte-derived cytokine by transferring TNF-α [202]
  Lm infection Transferring antigens of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) to DCs for antigen presentation [203]
T lymphocytes Inducers of apoptosis Inducing apoptosis and stimulating release of MPs in macrophages [204]
  Starvation Converting fibroblasts into osteoclasts by up-regulating IL-15, MMP9 and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand in odontogenic keratocysts [205]
  TNF-α Incapable of inducing plasmacytoid DCs maturation [192]
  UV Incapable of mediating M2 polarization of TAMs [163]
  No treatment Inhibiting growth and migration of retinal endothelial cells in vitro, and decreasing VEGF-induced retinal vascular leakage in vivo [206]
Splenic cells PMA Increasing tumor metastasis by transferring integrin α(M)β2 [207]
Yeast cells NaOH and heat Activating DCs through Dectin-1/Syk pathway and TLR2/MyD88 pathway [78]