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Table 1 Advantages and disadvantages of different in vitro tumor culture models

From: Tumor-on-a-chip model for advancement of anti-cancer nano drug delivery system

Models Advantages Disadvantages
2D cell-culture Cheap, High-throughput
Easy to culture
Only tumor cell lines
No TME
Morphology and phenotype changes
3D spheroids Cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction
Physiological morphology
Batch-to batch variation
Lack of vascularization and shear stress
Organoids Patient-specific cell
High heterogeneity
Expensive and difficult to culture
Lack of vascularization and shear stress
Lack of inherent functions of in situ organs